The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • Abrams, L. 1951. Geraniums to Figworts. 3: 866 pp. In L. Abrams Ill. Fl. Pacific States. Stanford University Press, Stanford. External link.
  • Allorge-Boiteau, L. 2002. Les cactées introduites à Madagascar. Succulentes (France) 25(1): 9–16. External link.
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville. External link.
  • C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Cactus. Topic ed. Arthur Dawson. Ed.-in-chief Cutler J.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC
  • CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City. External link.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, e. 2003. Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, part 1. 4: i–xxiv, 1–559. In Fl. N. Amer. Oxford University Press, New York. External link.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2003. Flora of North America North of Mexico, vol. 4: Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, part. 1. 559
  • Hickman, J. C. 1993. Jepson Man.: Higher Pl. Calif. i–xvii, 1–1400. University of California Press, Berkeley. External link.
  • Isoneotype: Weber, F. A. 1897. Dict. Hort. 896.; Benson, L. D. 1982. Cacti U.S. Canada. 920.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Apr 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Shreve, F. & I. L. Wiggins. 1964. Veg. Fl. Sonoran Des. 2 vols. Stanford University Press, Stanford. External link.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!