Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

The delicate flowers of Late Boneset closely resemble the flowers of other Bonesets, such as Eupatorium altissimum (Tall Boneset) and Eupatorium perfoliatum (Common Boneset), in both color and structure. These Bonesets can be distinguished readily from each other by an examination and comparison of their leaves. Tall Boneset has leaves that are pubescent, more narrow, and less coarsely serrated than Late Boneset, while Common Boneset has leaves that wrap around the stem and are without petioles. Return
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Description

This native perennial plant is 3-6' tall. It is largely unbranched below, but forms occasional side stems toward the apex. The stems have indistinct lines of white hairs, and are generally pubescent. The leaves are primarily opposite, although the upper leaves near the inflorescence sometimes alternate. These leaves are up to 7" long and 2½" across, with petioles up to 1" long. They are lanceolate, largely hairless, with coarse serration along the margins, and there are 5 veins that diverge from the base. These leaves tend to nod downward from their petioles, and are often dark green. The flat-topped inflorescence consists of numerous heads of white disk florets; there are no ray florets. Each flowerhead has about 12 disk florets. Each disk floret is about ¼" long, narrow and tubular, with 5 small triangular lobes at the top. There is also a long divided style that is white, which protrudes conspicuously from each floret. The blooming period occurs during late summer or early fall and lasts about a month. There is occasionally a mild floral scent. The small achenes develop flat tufts of hair and are dispersed by the wind. The root system is fibrous and rhizomatous. This plant often forms colonies by means of these rhizomes.
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Late Boneset occurs in nearly all counties of Illinois, except for possibly three counties in the north (see Distribution Map). This is a common plant. Habitats include moist black soil prairies, moist meadows near rivers, swamps, areas near drainage ditches, low-lying areas along railroads and roadsides, pastures, and abandoned fields. This plant is often near sources of water, or where the water table is not far below the land surface. It is more common in disturbed areas.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Perennials, 50–150+ cm. Stems (from short caudices) single, sparsely to densely branched distally, pubescent throughout (sometimes reddish to purplish). Leaves opposite; petiolate (petioles 10–25 mm); blades ± 3-nerved, lanceolate, 20–90+ × 5–40 mm, bases rounded to slightly oblique, margins entire or serrate, apices acute, faces puberulent, gland-dotted. Heads in corymbiform arrays. Phyllaries 8–12 in 1–2 series, elliptic to oblong, 1–3 × 0.5–1 mm, apices slightly rounded to acute, abaxial faces puberulent, gland-dotted. Florets 9–15; corollas 2.5–3 mm. Cypselae 1–1.5 mm; pappi of 20–30 bristles 2–2.5 mm. 2n = 20.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Late Boneset occurs in nearly all counties of Illinois, except for possibly three counties in the north (see Distribution Map). This is a common plant. Habitats include moist black soil prairies, moist meadows near rivers, swamps, areas near drainage ditches, low-lying areas along railroads and roadsides, pastures, and abandoned fields. This plant is often near sources of water, or where the water table is not far below the land surface. It is more common in disturbed areas.
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Depth range based on 8 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 1
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Faunal Associations

The flowers are very popular with many kinds of insects, including long-tongued bees, short-tongued bees, wasps, flies, small to medium-sized butterflies, skippers, moths, and beetles. Most of these insects seek nectar, although bees may collect pollen and beetles may feed on it. In the upper photograph, are two Ailanthus Webworm Moths sucking nectar from the flowers. The caterpillars of various moths can be found feeding on various parts of this and other Bonesets, including Haploa clymene (Clymene Moth; eats foliage), Phragmatobia lineata (Lined Ruby Tiger Moth; eats foliage), Carmenta bassiformis (Eupatorium Borer Moth; bores into roots), Schinia trifascia (Three-Lined Flower Moth; eats flowers and seed capsules). Mammalian herbivores rarely consume this plant because of the bitter foliage. In overgrazed pastures, Late Boneset often becomes more common because of reduced competition from other plants.
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Flower-Visiting Insects of Late Boneset in Illinois

Eupatorium serotinum (Late Boneset)
(Bees collect pollen or suck nectar; some beetles feed on pollen & are non-pollinating, otherwise they suck nectar; other insects suck nectar; individual observations are from Hilty and Krombein et al. as indicated below, otherwise observations are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp fq; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus fraternus sn cp, Bombus griseocallis sn, Bombus impatiens sn cp fq, Bombus pensylvanica sn, Bombus vagans sn cp, Psithyrus variabilis sn; Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus bifasciatus sn, Triepeolus cressonii cressonii sn, Triepeolus lunatus lunatus sn, Triepeolus pectoralis sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes boltoniae sn cp, Melissodes dentiventris sn, Melissodes nivea sn cp, Melissodes rustica sn; Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys octodentata sn, Coelioxys sayi sn; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn, Megachile latimanus sn, Megachile mendica sn cp; Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades leavitti sn cp fq

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn, Agapostemon virescens sn fq, Augochlorella striata sn, Halictus ligatus sn, Lasioglossum coriaceus sn cp, Lasioglossum imitatus sn fq, Lasioglossum pectoralis sn, Lasioglossum zephyrus sn; Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes pimpinellae sn; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes compactus sn, Colletes eulophi sn cp fq; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena placata (Kr)

Wasps
Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Bicyrtes quadrifasciata; Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Crabro tumidus, Ectemnius decemmaculatus, Ectemnius dilectus; Sphecidae (Larrinae): Ancistromma distincta fq; Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris prominens, Eucerceris fulvipes fq, Eucerceris zonata, Philanthus gibbosus, Philanthus ventilabris; Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi, Ammophila nigricans fq, Ammophila pictipennis, Ammophila procera, Eremnophila aureonotata, Isodontia apicalis, Isodontia philadelphica, Sceliphron caementaria; Vespidae: Polistes annularis, Polistes carolina, Polistes dorsalis, Polistes fuscata, Vespula germanica; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Ancistrocerus adiabatus, Ancistrocerus antilope, Ancistrocerus campestris, Eumenes fraterna, Euodynerus annulatus, Euodynerus foraminatus, Leionotus scrophulariae (Rb, MS), Monobia quadridens; Pompilidae: Anoplius illinoensis, Anoplius marginatus; Chrysididae: Ceratochrysis perpulchra, Hedychrum violaceum, Hedychrum wiltii; Ichneumonidae: Ceratogastra ornata, Cremastus cressoni; Braconidae: Cardiochiles viator

Flies
Tabanidae: Chrysops striatus; Syrphidae: Cheilosia punctulata, Eristalis tenax, Milesia virginiensis, Orthonevra nitida, Spilomyia longicornis; Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa fasciata, Exoprosopa fascipennis, Sparnopolius confusus, Systoechus vulgaris, Systropus macer, Villa alternata; Conopidae: Physocephala texana, Physocephala tibialis, Physoconops brachyrhynchus, Stylogaster biannulata; Tachinidae: Archytas aterrima, Belvosia bifasciata, Chetogena claripennis, Cylindromyia euchenor, Gnadochaeta nigrifrons, Gymnoclytia occidua, Gymnosoma fuliginosum, Leskia similis, Plagiomima spinosula, Solieria flava, Spallanzania hesperidarum, Trichopoda pennipes, Xanthomelanodes arcuatus; Sarcophagidae: Helicobia rapax; Calliphoridae: Cochliomyia macellaria; Muscidae: Musca domestica, Neomyia cornicina

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Phyciodes tharos, Vanessa cardui, Speyeria cybele; Lycaenidae: Everes comyntas, Lycaena hyllus; Pieridae: Colias philodice, Pieris rapae, Pontia protodice

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Atalopedes campestris, Epargyreus clarus, Polites themistocles fq

Moths
Ctenuchidae: Cisseps fulvicollis; Noctuidae: Feltia jaculifera, Spragueia leo; Sesiidae: Carmenta pyralidiformis; Yponomeutidae: Atteva punctella (H)

Beetles
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus sn; Cerambycidae: Megacyllene decorum fp np, Megacyllene robiniae fp np; Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica undecimpunctata sn; Rhipiphoridae: Macrosiagon limbata lgf; Scarabaeidae (Cetoniidae): Euphoria sepulcralis sn

Plant Bugs
Pentatomidae: Euschistus variolaria

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Eupatorium serotinum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eupatorium serotinum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is partial or full sun and moist conditions. The soil should be loamy and high in organic matter. Lower leaves sometimes discolor and fall off during a drought, otherwise this plant is subject to few problems. The size of this plant is significantly affected by moisture levels.
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Wikipedia

Eupatorium serotinum

Eupatorium serotinum, also known as late boneset or late thoroughwort, is a fall-blooming herbaceous plant native to North America.[2] Like other members of the genus Eupatorium, it is about one to two meters tall and has inflorescences containing a large number of white flowers with disc florets and no ray florets.[3]

It ranges throughout most of the eastern United States, as far south as Mexico (near the Texas border),[4] as far north as the United States–Canadian border, and as far west as Nebraska and Texas.[2]

Eupatorium serotinum.jpg

It grows in open sites (either dry or moist), and can hybridize with Eupatorium perfoliatum[2] and other members of the genus Eupatorium. Unlike wind-pollinated plants in this genus, E. serotinum is pollinated by insects.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Eupatorium serotinum". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  2. ^ a b c "Eupatorium serotinum". Flora of North America. 
  3. ^ "Eupatorium". Flora of North America. 
  4. ^ Schmidt, Gregory J. & Schilling, Edward E. (2000). "Phylogeny and biogeography of Eupatorium (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) based on nuclear ITS sequence data". American Journal of Botany 87 (5): 716–726. doi:10.2307/2656858. JSTOR 2656858. PMID 10811796. 
  5. ^ Victoria I. Sullivan, Joseph Neigel and Bomao Miao (May 1991). "Bias in Inheritance of Chloroplast DNA and Mechanisms of Hybridization between Wind- And Insect-Pollinated Eupatorium (Asteraceae)". American Journal of Botany 78 (5): 695–705. doi:10.2307/2445090. JSTOR 2445090. 

Further reading[edit]

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Notes

Comments

Eupatorium serotinum has a wide distribution and is often abundant where it occurs. It includes only sexual, diploid populations. It is known to hybridize with E. perfoliatum. An introduction of E. serotinum in southeastern Ontario apparently is local and may not have persisted.
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