Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Common Boneset has interesting foliage and fragrant flowers. It tolerates flooded conditions better than many other Boneset species. It can be distinghished from these other species by the perfoliate leaves that surround the central stem. The other species have opposite leaves that are sessile or have distinct petioles. All of these species have spreading clusters of white flowers with a similar appearance. These flowers are quite popular with diverse kinds of insects.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

This native perennial plant is 2-4' tall and unbranched, except for some flowering side stems near the apex. The central stem and side stems are covered with long white hairs. The opposite leaves are up to 8" long and 2" across, and light or yellowish green. Their bases surround the central stem and merge together (perfoliate). In shape, they are lanceolate with long narrow tips and serrate margins. There is a conspicuous network of veins, particularly on the lower leaf surface. This lower surface is also pubescent. Some of the upper leaves near the inflorescence(s) are much smaller in size and sessile. The upper stems terminate in clusters of white flowerheads, spanning about 2-8" across. Each flowerhead is about 1/6" across and consists of about 15 disk florets. Each disk floret has 5 spreading lobes and a long divided style, in the manner of other Eupatorium spp. The blooming period is late summer to early fall, which typically lasts about 1-2 months for a colony of plants. There is a pleasant floral scent. The florets are replaced by achenes with small tufts of hair – they are dispersed by the wind. The root system is fibrous and produces rhizomes in abundance. Common Boneset typically forms vegetative colonies. Cultivation
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Common Boneset has been reported from most counties of Illinois, and is fairly common (see Distribution Map). However, it appears to be somewhat less common than either Eupatorium serotinum (Late Boneset) and Eupatorium altissimum (Tall Boneset). Habitats include openings in floodplain forests, poorly drained areas of black soil prairies, and various kinds of wetlands, including marshes, bogs, fens, seeps, edges of rivers, and sand flats along Lake Michigan. This plant also occurs in or near roadside ditches. Generally, it doesn't stray far from wetland areas of one kind or another. Faunal Associations
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Reported but unconfirmed

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Perennials, 40–100+ cm. Stems (from short caudices) single, sparsely branched distally, puberulent throughout. Leaves usually opposite (sometimes whorled); sessile; blades pinnately nerved, oblong (tapering toward apices), 50–150+ × 15–40 mm, bases connate-perfoliate, margins serrate, apices acute, faces pilose, gland-dotted (abaxial), glabrate, not gland-dotted (adaxial). Heads in corymbiform arrays. Phyllaries 7–10 in 1–2 series, oblong, 2–4.5 × 0.6–1 mm, apices (whitish) acute to acuminate, abaxial faces villous or puberulent, gland-dotted. Florets 7–11; corollas 2.5–3 mm. Cypselae 1.5–2 mm; pappi of 20–30 bristles 3–3.5 mm. 2n = 20.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Isotype for Eupatorium serotinum var. polyneuron F.J. Herm.
Catalog Number: US 1697060
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. C. Deam
Year Collected: 1935
Locality: 2 mi NE of Hanover., Jefferson, Indiana, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Hermann, F. J. 1938. Rhodora. 40: 86.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Common Boneset has been reported from most counties of Illinois, and is fairly common (see Distribution Map). However, it appears to be somewhat less common than either Eupatorium serotinum (Late Boneset) and Eupatorium altissimum (Tall Boneset). Habitats include openings in floodplain forests, poorly drained areas of black soil prairies, and various kinds of wetlands, including marshes, bogs, fens, seeps, edges of rivers, and sand flats along Lake Michigan. This plant also occurs in or near roadside ditches. Generally, it doesn't stray far from wetland areas of one kind or another. Faunal Associations
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Common Boneset in Illinois

Eupatorium perfoliatum (Common Boneset)
(Bees usually suck nectar, except as noted below; other insects suck nectar, except for some pollen-feeding flies and beetles; some observations are from Graenicher and Krombein et al. as indicated below, otherwise they are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae):
Apis melliera sn fq (Rb, Gr); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus affinis sn cp (Gr), Bombus fraternus sn, Bombus griseocallis sn, Bombus impatiens sn, Bombus pensylvanica (Gr); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes rustica sn cp (Gr); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn cp (Rb, Gr), Megachile centuncularis sn cp (Gr), Megachile mendica cp

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella aurata sn, Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn, Halictus confusus sn (Gr), Halictus ligatus sn cp fq, Halictus rubicunda sn, Lasioglossum albipennis sn (Gr), Lasioglossum connexus sn (Gr), Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn (Gr), Lasioglossum versatus sn cp (Gr), Lasioglossum zephyrus sn (Gr); Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes clematidis sn (Gr), Sphecodes cressonii sn (Gr), Sphecodes pimpinellae sn; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes eulophi sn; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis sn, Hylaeus mesillae sn, Hylaeus modesta modesta sn (Gr); Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena simplex (Kr)

Wasps
Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Stizus brevipennis; Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Anacrabro ocellatus, Crabro tumidus, Ectemnius atriceps (Gr), Ectemnius decemmaculatus (Rb, Gr), Ectemnius continuus (Gr), Ectemnius dilectus, Ectemnius rufifemur, Ectemnius trifasciatus (Gr), Lestica confluentus (Rb, Gr) fq, Oxybelus emarginatus (Rb, Gr), Oxybelus mexicanus, Oxybelus uniglumis (Gr); Sphecidae (Larrinae): Ancistromma distincta fq, Larra analis (Gr), Tachysphex acuta, Tachysphex pompiliformis (Gr), Tachytes distinctus, Tachytes pepticus (Gr); Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris clypeata (Rb, Gr), Cerceris nigrescens (Gr), Cerceris prominens, Eucerceris zonata fq, Philanthus bilunatus (Gr), Philanthus gibbosus (Rb, Gr), Philanthus politus (Gr), Philanthus ventilabris (Gr); Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi, Ammophila nigricans fq, Ammophila procera, Eremnophila aureonotata, Isodontia apicalis, Isodontia philadelphica (Gr), Sceliphron caementaria, Sphex ichneumonea (Rb, Gr), Sphex nudus; Vespidae: Dolichovespula maculata, Polistes annularis, Polistes carolina, Polistes fuscata (Rb, Gr), Vespula germanica; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Ancistrocerus adiabatus (Rb, Gr) fq, Ancistrocerus antilope (Rb, Gr), Ancistrocerus campestris, Eumenes fraterna (Rb, Gr), Euodynerus foraminatus, Stenodynerus anormis (Rb, Gr); Pompilidae: Anoplius aethiops (Gr), Anoplius lepidus (Gr), Ceropales maculata (Gr), Poecilopompilus interrupta (Gr); Sapygidae: Sapyga interrupta (Rb, Gr) fq; Tiphiidae: Myzinum quinquecincta (Rb, Gr) fq; Scoliidae: Scolia bicincta fq; Chrysididae: Hedychrum violaceum, Hedychrum wiltii; Perilampidae: Perilampus hyalinus (Rb, Gr); Ichneumonidae: Ceratogastra ornata (Rb, Gr), Cremastus cressoni; Braconidae: Apanteles crassicornis (Gr), Chelonus sericeus (Gr), Vipio haematodes (Gr)

Flies
Stratiomyidae: Hedriodiscus binotata (Gr), Nemotelus glaber sn; Syrphidae: Cheilosia punctulata sn, Eristalinus aeneus (Gr), Eristalis arbustorum (Gr), Eristalis dimidiatus (Gr), Eristalis tenax (Gr), Eristalis transversus (Gr), Paragus bicolor (Gr), Sphaerophoria contiqua (Gr), Spilomyia longicornis sn (Rb, Gr), Spilomyia sayi (Gr), Syritta pipiens (Gr), Syrphus ribesii sn, Toxomerus marginatus sn (Rb, Gr), Toxomerus politus sn, Tropidia quadrata (Gr); Bibionidae: Dilophus stigmaterus (Gr); Empidae: Empis clausa sn; Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa fasciata sn (Rb, Gr), Exoprosopa fascipennis (Gr), Poecilanthrax halcyon (Gr), Poecilognathus punctipennis (Gr), Sparnopolius confusa sn; Conopidae: Physoconops brachyrhynchus sn (Rb, Gr), Thecophora occidensis sn; Tabanidae: Hybomitra lasiophthalmus (Gr); Tachinidae: Archytas analis sn fq (Rb, Gr), Archytas aterrima sn, Euclytia flava sn, Gnadochaeta globosa sn, Gymnoclytia immaculata (Gr), Gymnoclytia occidua sn, Hystriciella pilosa sn, Leucostoma simplex (Gr), Lydina areos (Gr), Opsidia gonioides (Gr), Phasia aeneoventris (Gr), Plagiomima spinosula sn, Senotainia rubiventris (Gr), Spallanzania hesperidarum (Gr), Sphixapata trilineata (Gr), Tachinomyia panaetius (Gr), Xanthomelanodes arcuatus sn; Anthomyiidae: Delia platura (Gr); Calliphoridae: Cochliomyia macellaria sn (Rb, Gr), Lucilia illustris (Gr), Lucilia sericata sn, Phormia regina sn (Rb, Gr), Pollenia rudis (Gr); Sarcophagidae: Helicobia rapax sn, Ravinia stimulans sn, Sarcophaga sarracenioides (Gr); Sepsidae: Sepsis violacea (Gr); Muscidae: Lispe albitarsis sn, Musca domestica (Gr), Neomyia cornicina sn (Rb, Gr), Stomoxys calcitrans sn (Rb, Gr)

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Boloria bellona (Gr), Danaus plexippus (Rb, Gr), Limenitis archippus (Gr), Phyciodes tharos; Pieridae: Colias philodice, Pieris rapae (Gr); Lycaenidae: Lycaena hyllus (Gr)

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Ancyloxypha numitor, Euphyes dion, Poanes hobomok (Gr), Polites orgianes (Gr)

Moths
Arctiidae: Utetheisa bella (Gr); Noctuidae: Caenurgina erechtea, Feltia jaculifera (Gr); Sesiidae: Cisseps fulvicollis

Beetles
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus sn; Carabidae: Microlestes maurus glabratus (Gr); Cerambycidae: Megacyllene robiniae (Gr); Chrysomelidae: Cerotoma trifurcata sn, Diabrotica undecimpunctata (Gr); Cleridae: Trichodes apivorus (Gr); Curculionidae: Odontocorynus scutellum-album sn; Meloidae: Cylindridia prolixa (Gr), Epicauta pensylvanica fp np (Rb, Gr); Rhipiphoridae: Macrosiagon limbata lgf; Scarabaeidae (Cetoniinae): Euphoria sepulcralis sn

Plant Bugs
Miridae: Adelphocoris rapidus (Gr), Lygus lineolaris (Gr); Phymatidae: Phymata fasciatus prd (Gr)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Eupatorium perfoliatum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eupatorium perfoliatum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: TNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NU - Unrankable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GU - Unrankable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Eupatorium perfoliatum

Eupatorium perfoliatum or (Common) Boneset is a common perennial plant native to the Eastern United States and Canada, with a range from Nova Scotia to Florida, as well as from Louisiana and Texas through North Dakota.[2] It is also called "agueweed", "feverwort" or "sweating-plant". It was introduced to American colonists by Indians who used the plant for breaking fevers by means of heavy sweating. It is nearly always found in low, wet areas and is often found near Phalaris arundinacea (Reed canary grass).

Contents

Description[edit]

E. perfoliatum can be recognized from its perfoliate leaves

The Eupatorium perfoliatum plant grows about 1m tall, with leaves that clasp the stems and dense clusters of white heads held above the foliage.

The leaves growing together around the stem lead to a past superstition that wrapping the leaves in bandages around splints would help mend broken bones.[3] Boneset also had other medical uses,[3] and was a very common remedy in the United States in the 19th century.[4] The common name boneset apparently derives from the plant's historical use in treating dengue fever (which is also known as breakbone).[5]

E. perfoliatum can form hybrids with other species of the genus Eupatorium, for example Eupatorium serotinum.[2]

Medicinal uses[edit]

Eupatorium perfoliatum was used in the traditional medicine of Native Americans and extracts are now used in herbal medicine for fever and colds.[6] The effects of Eupatorium perfoliatum have not been confirmed by clinical study.[6] However, animal studies and in vitro experiments with plant extracts indicate possible anti-inflammatory effects and activity against Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite that causes malaria.[6]

Butterflies[edit]

Eupatorium perfoliatum is a specific Butterfly food and habitat plant.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Eupatorium perfoliatum". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  2. ^ a b "Eupatorium perfoliatum". Flora of North America. 
  3. ^ a b Audubon Society Field Guide To Wild Flowers - Eastern Region - 1979
  4. ^ Mrs. M. Grieve (1931). "Boneset". A Modern Herbal. 
  5. ^ George Diggs, Barney Lipscomb, Robert O'Kennon (Author), Barney Lipscomb (Editor), Linny Heagy (1999). Shinners & Mahler's Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas. ISBN 978-1-889878-01-0. 
  6. ^ a b c Hensel, Andreas; Maas, Mareike; Sendker, Jandirk; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Petereit, Frank; Deters, Alexandra; Schmidt, Thomas & Stark, Timo (2011). "Eupatorium perfoliatum L.: Phytochemistry, traditional use and current applications". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 138 (3): 641–651. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.10.002. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

Eupatorium perfoliatum is both distinctive, with its perfoliate leaf bases, and extraordinarily widespread. Hybrids between E. perfoliatum and other species of Eupatorium have been reported. The name E. resinosum var. kentuckiense Fernald is based on hybrids between E. perfoliatum and E. serotinum (= E. ×truncatum Muhlenberg ex Willdenow). Eupatorium perfoliatum var. colophilum refers to populations characterized by narrower, more leathery leaves found in the extreme northeastern portion of the range.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Accepted as a species endemic to Florida by Kartesz (1999 Floristic Synthesis), citing Small's 1903 Southeast Flora as basis for report. Mentioned by Wunderlin (1998, Flora of Florida) under name Eupatorium x chapmannii in discussion of possible hybrids in the genus, but neither accepted nor placed into synonymy of any other accepted taxon. LEM 9Feb00.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!