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Overview

Brief Summary

The swan mussel has a thin fragile shell. It is found in fresh stationary waters. It has a foot so that it maneuver a bit. There is one known incident of a swan mussel which ended up on the bank after a mechanical cleanup and 'crept' back into the water. However, this is a rare incident; swan mussels don't usually move more than a few centimeters. You can often find pearls in these mussels.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species can be found throughout Europe from Portugal in the southwest as far east as Siberia (Zettler et al. 2006). However, there are no data to support species presence within Siberia (Vinarski et al. 2007). Mozley (1936) also described this species from northern Asia but molecular studies should confirm the validity of this claim. It has also been recorded in Northern Iran (Pourang et al. 2009). In Russia, it is found throughout the European part of the state (Kantor et al. 2009). The Iberian populations are restricted to three small lagoons in a 50 km radius in Portugal and it is possibly extinct from Spain after recent construction works in the Valencia albufera (lagoon) by the Mediterranean sea (Araujo pers comm.). A recent record of Anodonta cygnea has been published from Algeria (Khalloufi and Boumaiza 2005) but the validity of the species should also be confirmed with molecular characterization.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

This species primarily inhabits closed off and small waters such as ponds and peatlands, but can also be found occupying lakes and slow-flowing lowland rivers (Zettler et al. 2006). It is also found in canals, drainage dykes and dam reservoirs (Killeen et al. 2004). The species appears to prefer waterbodies characterized by high concentrations of dissolved oxygen (a likely consequence of the species' fast growth and large size), free from floating vegetation and with fertile bottom sediments (Zając 2002, Rosińska et al. 2008). The species is intolerant of poor environmental conditions, and can be used as a bioindicator of clean water (Rosińska et al. 2008). When present, it is often the only mussel species inhabiting these areas (Zettler et al. 2006). The species is able to use a wide range of host fish (both invasive and native fish) for larvae dispersal and metamorphosis (Giusti et al. 1975, Lopes-Lima pers. comm.)


Systems
  • Freshwater
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Anodonta cygnea

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACTTTATATTTATTATTGGCTTTGTGGTCGGGTTTAATCGGATTGGCTTTG---AGACTTTTAATCCGAGCTGAATTGGGTCAGCCGGGGAGGTTATTGGGGGAT---GATCAGTTATATAATGTGATTGTTACAGCTCATGCATTTATGATAATTTTTTTCTTGGTGATGCCAATAATGATTGGGGGGTTTGGTAATTGGCTTATTCCTTTAATG---ATTGGTGCTCCTGATATGGCTTTTCCTCGGTTGAATAATTTGAGGTTTTGGTTATTGGTGCCAGCTTTATTTCTGTTATTAAGATCGTCATTGGTAGAGAGTGGTGTTGGTACTGGGTGGACGGTATACCCTCCTTTGTCTGGGAATGTTGCTCATTCTGGAGCTTCAGTAGATCTG---GCCATTTTTTCCTTACATCTTGCTGGTGCTTCATCAATTTTAGGGGCTATTAATTTTATTTCTACTGTTGGAAATATACGATCTCCAGGCTTAGTCGCTGAGCGAATTCCTTTGTTTGTATGGGCTGTTACGGTAACAGCTGTATTATTGGTTGCTGCTTTGCCTGTTTTAGCTGGT---GCTATTACAATATTATTGACTGATCGTAATTTAAATACTTCGTTTTTTGACCCCACTGGAGGTGGGGATCCTATTTTATATATACATTTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anodonta cygnea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Lopes-Lima , M.

Reviewer/s
Kebapçı, U., Numa, C., Seddon, M.B. & Van Damme, D.

Contributor/s
Vinarski, M.

Justification
Anodonta cygnea has been assessed as Least Concern. This species is geographically widespread throughout Europe, Russia and parts of the Middle East, occurring in a wide variety of different habitats. Whilst it is known that population abundance is currently declining on a local scale, global population trends are unknown. In parts of its European range this species has legal protection and is listed on national Red Lists, but the effectiveness of these measures is not known. Further research into species population trends, abundance and the threats impacting this species on a global scale are required if this species is to be elevated to a threat category in future.

History
  • 2011
    Least Concern
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Population

Population

Although this species is widespread and considered fairly common (Zettler et al. 2006) not many studies have been carried to assess populations’ size and structure. In Poland this species has been declining since the 1950s due to habitat degradation and pollution (Zając 2005). In Britain, river management strategy includes the dredging of rivers which can remove 20% of British subpopulations (Aldridge 2001). At the southeastern edge of its range, the Iberian populations are only restricted to three small lagoons that have been recently invaded by water hyacinth (crassipes spp.) with very negative impacts (Lopes-Lima pers. com.) No detailed population trend data are known.


Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats

This species has been badly impacted by the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha and has suffered localised declines in areas where this species has invaded its habitats (Byrne et al. 2009). In the absence of suitable substrate, Anodonta species are known to be a preferred settlement site for zebra mussels. Heavy infestations can affect the feeding, respiration and reproduction of unionid bivalves, causing mortality and eliminating entire populations (Rosell et al. 1999). The continued range expansion of D. polymorpha into suitable habitat is likely to further impact this species' population numbers (Byrne et al. 2009).

Localized declines have been reported in Poland as a result of habitat degradation, water pollution and eutrophication (Dyduch-Falniowska 1992, cited in Mills and Reynolds 2004). The species is also threatened as a result of poaching for supply in artificial basins and garden ponds (Rosińska et al. 2008). In Britain, poor river management is a significant threat to the species: dredging occurs approximately every ten years and can remove 20% of unioid populations (Aldridge 2001).

The recent invasion of the water hyacinth in the few freshwater lagoons of Iberia is menacing the whole population in this fringe of the distribution (Lopes-Lima pers. com.)

Further research is currently needed into the species' global population to assess the impacts of the documented threat processes.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
In Poland, this species has been strictly protected by law since 2011 and is listed as Endangered on the Polish Red List (Zając 2005). This species has special status in Germany by the BArtSchV (Anlage I) legislation (Federal Species Regulation) (Zettler et al. 2006), and is listed with a status of 2 - 'highly endangered' (Byrne et al. 2009). It is also listed on the local Red List of endangered animals of Brandenburg and of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Germany with a status of 3 - 'threatened' (Rosińska et al. 2008). The species is classified as Vulnerable under criterion A4ce on the Irish Red List No. 2 (Non-Marine Molluscs) (Byrne et al. 2009). It is also listed as Vulnerable on the Red List of threatened species of the Czech Republic (Farkač et al. 2005), and as Endangered on the Norwegian Red List (Byrne et al. 2009). It is also listed as Near Threatened on the Austrian Red List of Molluscs (Reischütz and Reischütz 2007).
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Wikipedia

Swan mussel

The swan mussel, Anodonta cygnea, is a large species of freshwater mussel, an aquatic bivalve mollusc in the family Unionidae, the river mussels.

Because of its morphological variability and its wide range of distribution, there are over 500 synonyms for this species.[2]

Shell description[edit]

The shell is thin but large (approximately 10 to 20 cm) and rather flat, even at the umbo. The shell color is often pale greenish or brownish.For differences from Anodonta anatina see Animalbase below (external links).

Distribution[edit]

Its native distribution is European-Siberian. The geographical distribution of this species is from the British Isles east to Siberia, and south into northern Africa.

  • Croatia
  • Czech Republic - in Bohemia, in Moravia,[3] vulnerable (VU);[4] Czech code, Decree for implementation, No. 395/1992 Sb. (and No. 175/2006 Sb.) - Highly threatened species.
  • Germany
  • The Netherlands - yes [6]
  • Poland - endangered[7][8]
  • Slovakia
  • Sweden - quite rare [9]
  • British Isles including Ireland
  • Italy
  • Portugal

Habitat[edit]

This species is found in rivers and lakes.

Life habits[edit]

Drawing of the glochidium larva of the swan mussel

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lopes-Lima, M. (2014). "Anodonta cygnea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 July 2014. 
  2. ^ http://mussel-project.ua.edu/tax/intro/overnamed.html Accessed 17 November 2010.
  3. ^ (Czech) Horsák M., Juřičková L., Beran L., Čejka T. & Dvořák L. (2010). "Komentovaný seznam měkkýšů zjištěných ve volné přírodě České a Slovenské republiky. [Annotated list of mollusc species recorded outdoors in the Czech and Slovak Republics]". Malacologica Bohemoslovaca, Suppl. 1: 1-37. PDF.
  4. ^ Red List of the molluscs (Mollusca) of the Czech Republic http://mollusca.sav.sk/malacology/redlist.htm
  5. ^ Glöer P. & Meier-Brook C. (2003) Süsswassermollusken. DJN, pp. 134, page 109, ISBN 3-923376-02-2
  6. ^ http://www.anemoon.org/anm/voorlopige-kaarten/zoetwatermollusken/wetenschappelijk/anodonta-cygnea/
  7. ^ Anodonta cygnea - Polska Czerwona Księga Zwierząt - Bezkręgowce
  8. ^ pl:Polska Czerwona Księga Zwierząt - Bezkręgowce
  9. ^ [1] cited 16 February 2007
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