Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This herbaceous perennial plant is about ½–1½' tall. It consists of a loose cluster of basal leaves on long petioles and a flowering stalk with a few alternate leaves. The basal leaves are up to 4" long and across; they are palmately cleft into about 5 deep lobes, which are in turn divided into 2-3 shallow secondary lobes. These leaves are usually sparsely pubescent and they may have a few dentate teeth along the margins. Their petioles are pubescent or hairy and rather stout. The alternate leaves are clustered near the base of the flowering stalk and they are few in number; their appearance is similar to the basal leaves. Both the basal and alternate leaves are pale greyish green to green. The flowering stalk is more or less erect, terete, stout, and rather fleshy. This stalk is whitish green or whitish red and it is usually covered with fine white hairs; less often, it is glabrous. A raceme of flowers about 3-8" long occurs at the apex of this stalk; each raceme has 6-24 flowers. Each flower is about ¾–1" across, consisting of 5 petal-like sepals, 4 petals, 3 inner pistils, and stamens. The sepals spread outward from the center of the flower and they are usually some shade of purple or blue-violet; far less often, they are white. The upper sepal forms a long nectar spur behind the rest of the flower; this spur angles upward and it is fairly straight. A few cobwebby hairs may occur along the nectar spur and the posterior surface of the sepals. The upper two petals are quite small and usually white toward the base; they extend backward into the nectar spur. The lower two petals are quite hairy and usually purple or blue-violet like the sepals. These small petals surround the whitish opening that leads to the nectar spur. The pedicels are up to ¾" long and they are usually pubescent. The blooming period occurs during the late spring, lasting about 3 weeks. Each fertile flower is replaced by three spreading follicles (a seed capsule that splits open along one side). Each follicle is oblongoid and angular, terminating in a short beak; it contains several chunky seeds. The root system is tuberous and can form clonal offsets. Cultivation
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Dwarf Larkspur occurs occasionally in the southern half of Illinois, while in the upper half of the state it is uncommon or absent (see Distribution Map). Illinois lies along the upper range limit of this species. Habitats include mesic woodlands, moist ravines and thinly wooded slopes (often rocky), thinly wooded bluffs, and partially shaded cliffs along river banks. This species displays a preference for hilly deciduous woodlands. Faunal Associations
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ala., Ark., D.C., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Md., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Va., W.Va.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Stems 20-60 cm; base often reddish, nearly glabrous. Leaves mostly on proximal 1/3 of stem; basal leaves 0-4 at anthesis; cauline leaves 2-8 at anthesis; petiole 4-12 cm. Leaf blade round, 2-8 × 4-12 cm, nearly glabrous; ultimate lobes 3-18, 5 or more extending more than 3/5 distance to petiole, width 2-10 mm (basal), 4-10 mm (cauline), widest at middle or in proximal 1/2. Inflorescences 5-15(-30)-flowered, less than 3 times longer than wide; pedicel 1-2.5 cm, puberulent; bracteoles 1-4(-6) mm from flowers, green, linear, 3-5 mm, puberulent. Flowers: sepals deep bluish purple to pink or white, puberulent, lateral sepals spreading, 11-19 × 4-7 mm, spurs straight, within 30° of horizontal, 13-16 mm; lower petal blades ± covering stamens, blue, except sometimes in white-flowered plants, 6-10 mm, clefts 0.5-2 mm; hairs sparse, mostly centered near junction of blade and claw, white. Fruits 14-22 mm, 4-4.5 times longer than wide, nearly glabrous. Seeds unwinged; surface of each seed coat cell with 1-5 small, swollen, elongate, blunt, hairlike structures, barely visible at 20× otherwise smooth. 2 n = 16.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Dwarf Larkspur occurs occasionally in the southern half of Illinois, while in the upper half of the state it is uncommon or absent (see Distribution Map). Illinois lies along the upper range limit of this species. Habitats include mesic woodlands, moist ravines and thinly wooded slopes (often rocky), thinly wooded bluffs, and partially shaded cliffs along river banks. This species displays a preference for hilly deciduous woodlands. Faunal Associations
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Slopes in deciduous forests, thicket edges, moist prairies; 10-1500m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects and Birds of Spring Larkspur in Illinois

Delphinium tricorne (Spring Larkspur)
(Hummingbirds suck nectar; long-tongued bees usually suck nectar or collect pollen, although Bombus affinis and Xylocopa virginica perforate the flowers [prf] and suck nectar through the perforations [sn@prf]; short-tongued bees collect pollen & are non-pollinating; butterflies, skippers, & moths suck nectar & are non-pollinating; observations are from Robertson and Macior)

Birds
Trochilidae: Archilochus colubris sn (Rb, Mc)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Bombini): Bombus affinis prf sn@prf fq np (Mc), Bombus auricomus sn fq (Rb, Mc), Bombus bimaculatus sn fq (Mc), Bombus fervida sn fq (Mc), Bombus griseocollis sn fq (Rb, Mc), Bombus impatiens sn fq (Rb, Mc), Bombus pensylvanica sn fq (Rb, Mc), Bombus perplexus sn fq (Mc), Bombus vagans sn fq (Rb, Mc); Anthophoridae (Anthophorini): Anthophora abrupta sn (Rb), Anthophora ursina sn cp fq (Rb, Mc); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn np (Rb); Anthophoridae (Emphorini): Ptilothrix bombiformis sn fq (Mc); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Synhalonia speciosa sn cp fq icp (Rb); Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginica prf sn@prf fq np (Mc); Megachilidae (Osmiini): Osmia bucephala bucephala sn cp fq (Mc)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea cp np (Rb), Halictus rubicunda cp np (Rb)

Flies
Bombyliidae: Bombylius major sn fq np (Mc)

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Danaus plexippus sn np (Rb, Mc), Vanessa atalanta sn np (Mc), Vanessa cardui sn np (Mc); Papilionidae: Battus philenor sn fq np (Mc), Papilio glaucus sn fq np (Rb, Mc), Papilio polyxenes asterias sn np (Rb), Papilio troilus sn fq np (Rb, Mc); Pieridae: Colias philodice sn np (Rb)

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Epargyreus clarus sn np (Rb, Mc), Erynnis juvenalis sn np (Mc), Poanes zabulon sn np (Rb, Mc)

Moths
Sphingidae: Amphion floridensis sn fq np (Mc), Hemaris thysbe sn np (Mc), Hyles lineata sn np (Rb)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering spring.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Delphinium tricorne

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Delphinium tricorne

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Delphinium tricorne

Delphinium tricorne is a perennial flowering plant, known also by the common name dwarf larkspur, in the family Ranunculaceae. It sends up long, stringy thin stems with few leaves and bears attractive flowers in shades of blue. It is found throughout the eastern United States and in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. D. tricorne is one of the Delphinium species mentioned by Chesnut in an old report in connection with livestock poisoning in the United States.[1]

Chemical studies[edit]

The diterpenoid alkaloids lycoctonine and tricornine (otherwise known as lycoctonine-18-O-acetate) have been isolated from D. tricorne.[2] The toxicology and pharmacology of lycoctonine have been quite well studied, but there is only limited information available concerning the biological properties of tricornine.[3] Both alkaloids have neuro-muscular blocking properties,[4] and D. tricorne should be treated as a potentially poisonous plant.

Delphinium tricorne.jpg

References[edit]

  1. ^ V. K. Chesnut (1898) USDA Farmer's Bull. 86 11-13.
  2. ^ S. W. Pelletier and J. Bhattacharyya (1977) Phytochemistry 16 1464.
  3. ^ M. H. Benn and J. M. Jacyno (1983). In Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives, Vol. 1, (S. W. Pelletier, Ed.) pp. 153-210, New York: Wiley.
  4. ^ See Wikipedia entry for methyllycaconitine.


Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

Delphinium tricorne is the most commonly encountered larkspur east of the Great Plains. 

 The Cherokee prepared infusions of Delphinium tricorne to ingest for heart problems, although they believed the roots of the plant made cows drunk and killed them (D. E. Moerman 1986).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!