Range and Habitat in Illinois
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Range and Habitat in Illinois
Flower-Visiting Insects and Birds of Spring Larkspur in Illinois
(Hummingbirds suck nectar; long-tongued bees usually suck nectar or collect pollen, although Bombus affinis and Xylocopa virginica perforate the flowers [prf] and suck nectar through the perforations [sn@prf]; short-tongued bees collect pollen & are non-pollinating; butterflies, skippers, & moths suck nectar & are non-pollinating; observations are from Robertson and Macior)
Trochilidae: Archilochus colubris sn (Rb, Mc)
Apidae (Bombini): Bombus affinis prf sn@prf fq np (Mc), Bombus auricomus sn fq (Rb, Mc), Bombus bimaculatus sn fq (Mc), Bombus fervida sn fq (Mc), Bombus griseocollis sn fq (Rb, Mc), Bombus impatiens sn fq (Rb, Mc), Bombus pensylvanica sn fq (Rb, Mc), Bombus perplexus sn fq (Mc), Bombus vagans sn fq (Rb, Mc); Anthophoridae (Anthophorini): Anthophora abrupta sn (Rb), Anthophora ursina sn cp fq (Rb, Mc); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn np (Rb); Anthophoridae (Emphorini): Ptilothrix bombiformis sn fq (Mc); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Synhalonia speciosa sn cp fq icp (Rb); Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginica prf sn@prf fq np (Mc); Megachilidae (Osmiini): Osmia bucephala bucephala sn cp fq (Mc)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea cp np (Rb), Halictus rubicunda cp np (Rb)
Bombyliidae: Bombylius major sn fq np (Mc)
Nymphalidae: Danaus plexippus sn np (Rb, Mc), Vanessa atalanta sn np (Mc), Vanessa cardui sn np (Mc); Papilionidae: Battus philenor sn fq np (Mc), Papilio glaucus sn fq np (Rb, Mc), Papilio polyxenes asterias sn np (Rb), Papilio troilus sn fq np (Rb, Mc); Pieridae: Colias philodice sn np (Rb)
Hesperiidae: Epargyreus clarus sn np (Rb, Mc), Erynnis juvenalis sn np (Mc), Poanes zabulon sn np (Rb, Mc)
Sphingidae: Amphion floridensis sn fq np (Mc), Hemaris thysbe sn np (Mc), Hyles lineata sn np (Rb)
Life History and Behavior
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Delphinium tricorne
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Delphinium tricorne
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked
Delphinium tricorne is a perennial flowering plant, known also by the common name dwarf larkspur, in the family Ranunculaceae. It sends up long, stringy thin stems with few leaves and bears attractive flowers in shades of blue. It is found throughout the eastern United States and in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. D. tricorne is one of the Delphinium species mentioned by Chesnut in an old report in connection with livestock poisoning in the United States.
The diterpenoid alkaloids lycoctonine and tricornine (otherwise known as lycoctonine-18-O-acetate) have been isolated from D. tricorne. The toxicology and pharmacology of lycoctonine have been quite well studied, but there is only limited information available concerning the biological properties of tricornine. Both alkaloids have neuro-muscular blocking properties, and D. tricorne should be treated as a potentially poisonous plant.
- V. K. Chesnut (1898) USDA Farmer's Bull. 86 11-13.
- S. W. Pelletier and J. Bhattacharyya (1977) Phytochemistry 16 1464.
- M. H. Benn and J. M. Jacyno (1983). In Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives, Vol. 1, (S. W. Pelletier, Ed.) pp. 153-210, New York: Wiley.
- See Wikipedia entry for methyllycaconitine.
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The Cherokee prepared infusions of Delphinium tricorne to ingest for heart problems, although they believed the roots of the plant made cows drunk and killed them (D. E. Moerman 1986).
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