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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Ariz., Calif., Colo., Nev., N.Mex., Utah.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs evergreen, 1-4.5 m. Stems ± dimorphic, with elongate primary and short or somewhat elongate axillary shoots. Bark of 2d-year stems light brown or grayish purple, glabrous. Bud scales 2-4 mm, deciduous. Spines absent. Leaves 5-9(-11)-foliolate; petioles 0.2-0.8(-3) cm. Leaflet blades thick and rigid; surfaces abaxially dull, papillose, adaxially dull, glaucous; terminal leaflet stalked in most or all leaves, blade 1-2.6(-4) × 0.7-1.8(-2.5) cm, 1-2.5 times as long as wide; lateral leaflet blades elliptic to ovate or orbiculate, 1-3-veined from base, base obtuse or truncate, margins strongly crispate, toothed or lobed, with 2-5 teeth 2-6 mm high tipped with spines to 0.8-2.2 × 0.2-0.3 mm, apex obtuse to acuminate. Inflorescences racemose, lax, 3-6-flowered, 2.5-6.5 cm; bracteoles membranous, apex acuminate. Flowers: anther filaments with distal pair of recurved lateral teeth. Berries yellow or red to brown, ± glaucous, spheric, 12-18 mm, dry, inflated.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Mahonia fremontii (Torrey) Fedde
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Ecology

Habitat

Slopes and flats in desert grassland and pinyon-juniper woodland; 1100-2400(-3400)m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering spring (Apr-Jun).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Berberis fremontii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Mahonia fremontii

Mahonia fremontii (syn. Berberis fremontii) is a species of barberry known by the common name Frémont's mahonia (after John C. Frémont).

Distribution[edit]

Mahonia fremontii is native to California and the southwestern United States and parts of Northwest Mexico, where it grows in chaparral and other open habitat.

Description[edit]

Mahonia fremontii is an erect evergreen shrub growing up to 4.5 meters tall. The leaves are several centimeters long and are made up of several holly-leaf-shaped leaflets, each about 2 centimeters long and edged with spiny teeth. The leaves are purplish when new, green when mature, and greenish blue when aged.

The abundant inflorescences each bear 8 to 12 bright yellow flowers, blooming generally in the spring but sometimes in the fall. Each flower is made up of nine sepals and six petals all arranged in whorls of three. The fruit is a berry up to 1.5 centimeters wide, ranging in color from yellowish to purple to nearly black.

Uses[edit]

The Zuni people use the crushed berries as a purple coloring for the skin and for objects employed in ceremonies.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stevenson, Matilda Coxe 1915 Ethnobotany of the Zuni Indians. SI-BAE Annual Report #30 (p. 88)
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Berberis fremontii

Berberis fremontii (syn. Mahonia fremontii) is an evergreen shrub native to mountainous regions of the US states of Arizona, Nevada, California, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. It reaches a height of up to 3 m, and has pinnate leaves of 3-9 leaflets. Flowers are pale yellow, fruits ellipsoid and dull reddish-purple.[2][3] The plant was named in honor of John C. Fremont.[3]

The compound leaves place this species in the group sometimes segregated as the genus Mahonia.[3][4][5][6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tropicos Berberis fremontii
  2. ^ Laferriere, J.E. Berberidaceae, Barberry Family. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 26:2-4. 1992.
  3. ^ a b c Flora of North America, vol 3
  4. ^ Loconte, H., & J. R. Estes. 1989. Phylogenetic systematics of Berberidaceae and Ranunculales (Magnoliidae). Systematic Botany 14:565-579.
  5. ^ Marroquín, Jorge S., & Joseph E. Laferrière. 1997. Transfer of specific and infraspecific taxa from Mahonia to Berberis. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 30(1):53-55.
  6. ^ Laferrière, Joseph E. 1997a. Transfer of specific and infraspecific taxa from Mahonia to Berberis. Bot. Zhurn. 82(9):96-99.
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Berberis higginsiae

Berberis higginsiae is a shrub found only in a small region south and east of San Diego in southern California and northern Baja California. It grows in chaparral and woodland areas at elevations of 800-1200 m (2650-4000 feet).[1]

Berberis higginsiae is evergreen, with thick, stiff compound leaves. It sometimes reaches a height of up to 3 m (10 feet). It is similar to B. fremontii and B. haematocarpa but with narrower leaflets and yellowish-red berries.[1][2]

The compound leaves place this species in the group sometimes segregated as the genus Mahonia.[1][3][4][5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Flora of North America v 3
  2. ^ Munz, Philip Alexander. Aliso 4(1): 91–92. 1958.
  3. ^ Loconte, H., & J. R. Estes. 1989. Phylogenetic systematics of Berberidaceae and Ranunculales (Magnoliidae). Systematic Botany 14:565-579.
  4. ^ Marroquín, Jorge S., & Joseph E. Laferrière. 1997. Transfer of specific and infraspecific taxa from Mahonia to Berberis. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 30(1):53-55.
  5. ^ Laferrière, Joseph E. 1997. Transfer of specific and infraspecific taxa from Mahonia to Berberis. Bot. Zhurn. 82(9):96-99.
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Notes

Comments

Berberis fremontii is susceptible to infection by Puccinia graminis

 The Apache Indians used Berberis fremontii for ceremonial purposes; the Hopi used it medicinally to heal gums (D. E. Moermann 1986).

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