Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Bur marigold is an upright annual herb (1-5 feet tall) with a tap root. The alternate leaves are pinnately or bipinnately dissected, with each segment lanceolate and toothed or lobed on the margin. Plants produce numerous solitary flower heads held on long stalks from September to October; each head is 1-2 inches across and bright yellow with a yellow center. Seeds are dark brown, flattened, and have two prongs that project from one end.

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Alternative names

beggar ticks

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution and adaptation

Bur marigold grows and flowers best in full sun, but is also adapted to partial shade. Plants are often found growing in open shade along the edge of a woodland. It is adapted to most soil types, except for very sandy soils. Natural stands are generally found on moist sites such as in ditches, marshes, and wet meadows.

Bur marigold is distributed throughout the eastern and midwest United States. For a current distribution map, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Website.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annuals, (15–)30–60(–150) cm. Leaves: petioles 10–30 mm; blades lanceolate to lance-linear overall, 30–80(–150) × 10–30(–50) mm, usually laciniately pinnatisect, primary lobes 3–7+, 15–60+ × 2–20 mm, bases cuneate, ultimate margins laciniate to serrate, ciliate, apices acuminate, faces glabrous or sparsely scabrellous. Heads in ± corymbiform arrays. Peduncles (10–)30–80+ mm. Calyculi of 8–12(–16) usually spreading to reflexed, linear, seldom foliaceous bractlets (4–)5–7(–12) mm, margins entire, ciliate, abaxial faces glabrous or ± scabrellous. Involucres ± hemispheric or broader, 6–8(–12) × 10–15 mm. Phyllaries 7–8(–13), lance-ovate to lance-linear, 6–8(–12) mm. Ray florets (5–)8–10+; laminae yellow, 10–25 mm. Disc florets (12–)20–40+; corollas yellowish, 2–3+ mm. Cypselae red-brown to blackish, ± flattened (unequally 3–4-angled), broadly cuneate, outer (4–)5–6 mm, inner 5–7 mm (lengths mostly 1.5–2.5 times widths), margins (± corky-winged) patently to antrorsely barbed, apices truncate to concave, faces weakly striate, sometimes tuberculate, glabrous or sparsely strigillose; pappi 0, or of 2(–4) spreading to divergent, antrorsely or retrorsely barbed awns (0.5–)2–4(–6) mm.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Coreopsis aristosa Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 140. 1803; Bidens aristosa var. fritcheyi Fernald; B. aristosa var. mutica (A. Gray) Gattinger ex Fernald
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Ecology

Dispersal

Establishment

Seed should be planted from August to October. The seed will not germinate until the following spring, but it requires exposure to cool, moist conditions during the winter. A firm seedbed is required. Bur marigold germinates best on a clean tilled site that has been firmed with a roller or finishing harrow before planting. Seed can also be planted into a closely mowed, chemically-killed, or burned sod area with a light disking or harrowing that scratches the soil surface. A thick layer of plant residue on the soil surface can interfere with seed germination. Broadcast or shallowly drill 4-6 grams seed per 100 square feet (4-6 lb/acre). Planting depth should range from at the surface to one-quarter of an inch deep. Cultipacking after planting will ensure good seed to soil contact.

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Tickseed Sunflower in Illinois

Bidens aristosa (Tickseed Sunflower)
(Bees collect pollen or suck nectar; beetles usually feed on pollen & are non-pollinating, otherwise they suck nectar or gnaw on the flowers; most flies suck nectar, while others feed on pollen & are non-pollinating; other insects suck nectar; observations are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus auricomus sn, Bombus fraternus sn, Bombus griseocallis sn fq, Bombus impatiens sn cp fq, Bombus pensylvanica sn cp fq, Psithyrus variabilis sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp; Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus autumnalis sn, Epeolus bifasciatus sn, Epeolus coreopsis sn, Epeolus pusillus sn fq, Triepeolus concavus sn, Triepeolus cressonii cressonii sn fq, Triepeolus donatus sn, Triepeolus lunatus concolor sn, Triepeolus lunatus lunatus sn, Triepeolus pectoralis sn, Triepeolus remigatus sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes agilis sn fq, Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn, Melissodes boltoniae sn cp fq, Melissodes dentiventris sn cp, Melissodes nivea sn, Melissodes rustica sn, Melissodes trinodis sn cp fq, Svastra atripes atripes sn, Svastra obliqua obliqua sn cp; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada vicina vicina sn, Nomada vincta sn; Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys octodentata sn, Coelioxys sayi sn; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn cp fq, Megachile mendica sn cp, Megachile petulans sn cp; Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades leavitti sn cp, Heriades variolosa variolosa sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Dufoureinae): Dufourea marginatus sn; Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn cp, Agapostemon virescens sn cp, Augochlora purus sn, Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn, Halictus ligatus sn cp, Lasioglossum coriaceus sn, Lasioglossum pruinosus sn; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes compactus sn fq, Colletes eulophi sn cp, Colletes simulans armata sn; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena accepta sn cp, Andrena aliciae sn cp, Andrena helianthi sn; Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn, Calliopsis coloradensis sn cp icp, Heterosarus compositarum sn, Heterosarus labrosiformis labrosiformis sn cp, Heterosarus rudbeckiae sn cp fq, Heterosarus solidaginis sn, Perdita octomaculatus sn cp fq icp, Pseudopanurgus rugosus sn cp

Wasps
Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Bembix americana, Bembix nubilipennis, Bicyrtes quadrifasciata, Bicyrtes ventralis, Pseudoplisus divisus; Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris prominens, Eucerceris fulvipes; Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila nigricans, Eremnophila aureonotata, Sceliphron caementaria; Vespidae: Vespula germanica; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Ancistrocerus adiabatus, Stenodynerus histrionalis; Tiphiidae: Myzinum quinquecincta; Scoliidae: Scolia bicincta; Ichneumonidae: Ceratogastra ornata, Exetastes suaveolens fq; Braconidae: Agathis longipalpus

Flies
Syrphidae: Eristalis dimidiatus sn fq, Eristalis stipator sn, Eristalis transversus sn, Eupeodes americanus fp np, Milesia virginiensis sn, Orthonevra nitida fp np, Palpada vinetorum sn, Toxomerus politus fp np; Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa decora sn, Exoprosopa fasciata sn fq, Exoprosopa fascipennis sn fq, Lepidophora lepidocera sn, Poeciloanthrax alcyon sn, Sparnopolius confusus sn fq, Systropus macer sn, Toxophora amphitea sn; Conopidae: Physocephala texana sn, Robertsonomyia palpalis sn, Zodion fulvifrons sn; Tachinidae: Archytas aterrima sn, Cylindromyia euchenor sn, Estheria abdominalis sn, Leskiomima secunda sn (Rb, MS), Periscepsia laevigata sn, Plagiomima spinosula sn fq, Scotiptera parvicornis sn fq (Townsend, MS), Spallanzania hesperidarum sn, Tachinomyia panaetius sn fq; Sarcophagidae: Sphixapata trilineata sn; Calliphoridae: Cochliomyia macellaria sn, Lucilia illustris sn, Lucilia sericata sn; Anthomyiidae: Delia platura sn, Leucophora siphonina sn

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Danaus plexippus, Limenitis archippus, Limenitis arthemis astyanax, Phyciodes tharos, Speyeria cybele, Vanessa cardui fq; Pieridae: Colias philodice, Nathalis iole, Pieris rapae; Papilionidae: Battus philenor, Papilio polyxenes asterias

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Epargyreus clarus, Erynnis juvenalis, Polites themistocles

Moths
Noctuidae: Helicoverpa zea

Beetles
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus sn fq icp; Chrysomelidae: Calligrapha bidenticola fp np, Diabrotica undecimpunctata fp np; Curculionidae (Rhynchophorinae): Rhodobaenus tredecimpunctatus gnw np; Meloidae: Epicauta cinereus fp np, Epicauta pensylvanica fp np

Plant Bugs
Pentatomidae: Euschistus variolaria

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bidens aristosa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

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Management

Apply fertilizer according to soil test recommendations. If not available, a rate of 3.5-5.5 oz per 100 square feet (100-150 lb/acre) of 13-13-13 should be applied after the seedlings are established and annually thereafter. Natural or planted stands of bur marigold usually reseed heavily for two to three years but will gradually decline without maintenance. A light to medium disking will help control perennial weeds and promote bur marigold germination. Disking should be done in mid to late November. If necessary, plants can be mowed in the spring before stem elongation begins in April. Stands that are not disked should not be mowed again until after seed set in early November.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

This plant is used mainly for landscape beautification. It has potential for use in cultivated, garden situations, in naturalized prairie or meadow plantings, and along roadsides.

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Wikipedia

Bidens aristosa

Bidens aristosa, commonly called Bearded Beggarticks, Long-bracted Beggarticks, Tickseed Beggarticks, Swamp Marigold, Western Tickseed or Yankee Lice, is a species of flowering plant in the family Asteraceae. It belongs to the genus Bidens. It is native to North America.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bidens aristosa. Flora of North America.
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