Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This native annual plant is ½–3' tall, branching sparingly. The central stem is glabrous and occasionally angular. The opposite leaves are up to 5" long and 1" across, although usually smaller in size. They are linear-oblong to lanceolate-ovate, serrated along the margins, and hairless. These leaves are never lobed nor pinnately compound. At the base, the pairs of opposite leaves clasp the stem and nearly surround it (i.e., they're nearly connate), or they are sessile. The upper stems terminate in flowerheads about ½–1½" across. These flowerheads have a tendency to nod downward with age and the central head of disk florets becomes larger and more rounded. The corolla of each disk floret is yellow and narrowly tubular with 5 lobes. There are about 8 ray florets surrounding the disk florets, but sometimes they lack petaloid rays. When they are present, the petaloid rays are bright yellow and oblong-elliptic in shape; they are variable in length, depending on the local ecotype. At the base of each flowerhead, there are both inner and outer bracts (phyllaries). The inner bracts are pale yellow, membranous along their margins, and rather broad, tapering to blunt tips. The outer bracts are green and oblong-linear. These latter bracts are about as long or longer than the petaloid rays, but they have a tendency to curl backward with age. There are about 6-10 outer bracts per flowerhead. The blooming period occurs from late summer to early fall and lasts about 1-2 months for a colony of plants. Each achene is oblongoid, although broader and somewhat truncated at its apex, where there are usually 4 barbed awns. The root system is shallow and branches frequently. This plant often forms colonies and spreads by reseeding itself; sometimes the lower portion of a stem will form rootlets at the leaf nodes when it lies against moist soil. Nodding Bur-Marigold is rather variable across its range. The leaves have a tendency to turn purple during the cool weather of autumn. Cultivation
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Nodding Bur-Marigold is common in central and northern Illinois, but occasional to absent in southern Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include swamps, bogs, seeps, marshes, edges of rivers and ponds, soggy meadows in floodplain areas, and ditches along roads and railroads. Nodding Bur-Marigold is often found in degraded wetlands, although it also occurs in higher quality wetlands. Faunal Associations
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Widespread in N. Hemisphere.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annuals, (2–)20–100(–400+) cm (stems sometimes rooting at proximal nodes). Leaves (rarely in 3s) sessile; blades lance-ovate or oblanceolate to lanceolate or linear, 40–100(–200+) × (2–)5–25(–45+) mm, bases cuneate to rounded, margins usually coarsely dentate to serrate, sometimes entire, sometimes ciliate, apices acute to acuminate, faces glabrous. Heads (erect or nodding at flowering, usually nodding in fruit) borne singly or in open, ± corymbiform arrays. Peduncles 10–40(–100+) mm. Calyculi of (3–)5–8(–10) spreading to reflexed, oblong to lance-linear, often ± foliaceous bractlets or bracts (3–)8–12(–25+) mm, margins usually ciliate, abaxial faces usually glabrous, bases sometimes hispidulous. Involucres ± hemispheric or broader, (3–)6–10 × (8–)12–20+ mm. Phyllaries 6–8+, ovate or lance-ovate to lanceolate, 2–10 mm. Ray florets usually 6–8, sometimes 0; laminae orange-yellow, 2–15(–18) mm. Disc florets (10–)40–100(–150+); corollas orange-yellow, 3–4 mm. Cypselae blackish or brown, usually ± flattened, sometimes ± 4-angled, ± cuneate, outer (3–)5–6+ mm, inner 4–8 mm, margins (± thickened or winged) retrorsely ciliate, apices ± truncate to convex, faces ± striate, glabrous or tuberculo-strigillose; pappi of (2–)4, ± erect, retrorsely barbed awns (1–)2–4 mm. 2n = 24, 48.
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Elevation Range

2300-2600 m
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Bidens cernua var. elliptica Wiegand; B. cernua var. integra Wiegand; B. cernua var. minima (Hudson) Pursh; B. cernua var. oligodonta Fernald & H. St. John; B. cernua var. radiata de Candolle; B. filamentosa Rydberg; B. glaucescens Greene; B. gracilenta Greene; B. minima Hudson; B. prionophylla Greene
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Type Information

Isotype for Bidens kelloggii Greene
Catalog Number: US 692085
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. Kellogg & W. G. W. Harford
Year Collected: 1868
Locality: San Francisco, Lake Merced., California, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Greene, E. L. 1901. Pittonia. 4: 267.
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Syntype for Bidens lonchophylla Greene
Catalog Number: US 46662
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): W. C. Cusick
Year Collected: 1886
Locality: Oregon, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Greene, E. L. 1901. Pittonia. 4: 258.
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Isotype for Bidens cusickii Greene
Catalog Number: US 326271
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): W. C. Cusick
Year Collected: 1897
Locality: Grande Ronde Valley., Oregon, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Greene, E. L. 1901. Pittonia. 4: 259.
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Possible syntype for Bidens prionophylla Greene
Catalog Number: US 142644
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. M. Macoun
Year Collected: 1884
Locality: Muskeg Island, Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, North America
  • Possible syntype: Greene, E. L. 1901. Pittonia. 4: 256.
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Isotype for Bidens leptomeria Greene
Catalog Number: US 131128
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): L. F. Ward
Year Collected: 1878
Locality: Eastern Branch Marsh., District of Columbia, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Greene, E. L. 1901. Pittonia. 4: 264.
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Isotype for Bidens gracilenta Greene
Catalog Number: US 46667
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. H. Sandberg
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Minneapolis., Hennepin, Minnesota, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Greene, E. L. 1901. Pittonia. 4: 255.
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Isosyntype for Bidens glaucescens Greene
Catalog Number: US 343311
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. White
Year Collected: 1898
Locality: Saline, Kansas, United States, North America
  • Isosyntype: Greene, E. L. 1901. Pittonia. 4: 258.
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Isotype for Bidens cernua var. oligodonta Fernald & H. St. John
Catalog Number: US 1201613
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. L. Fernald
Year Collected: 1912
Locality: Grindstone Island, Magdalen Islands, Quebec, Canada, North America
  • Isotype: Fernald, M. L. & St. John, H. 1915. Rhodora. 17: 25.
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Holotype for Bidens ciliolata Greene
Catalog Number: US 47190
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. Crozier
Year Collected: 1886
Locality: Grand Rapids., Kent, Michigan, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Greene, E. L. 1901. Pittonia. 4: 256.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Nodding Bur-Marigold is common in central and northern Illinois, but occasional to absent in southern Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include swamps, bogs, seeps, marshes, edges of rivers and ponds, soggy meadows in floodplain areas, and ditches along roads and railroads. Nodding Bur-Marigold is often found in degraded wetlands, although it also occurs in higher quality wetlands. Faunal Associations
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Nodding Bur-Marigold in Illinois

Bidens cernua (Nodding Bur-Marigold)
(Bees suck nectar and sometimes collect pollen; beetles suck nectar or feed on pollen; other insects suck nectar; one observation is from Graenicher, otherwise they are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn fq; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus fraternus sn, Bombus griseocallis sn, Bombus impatiens sn, Bombus pensylvanica sn fq; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn; Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus autumnalis sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes agilis sn, Melissodes boltoniae sn cp fq, Melissodes rustica sn, Melissodes trinodis sn; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn cp fq, Megachile latimanus sn cp, Megachile mendica sn, Megachile petulans sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Halictus ligatus sn, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes compactus sn cp fq; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena aliciae sn cp

Wasps
Scoliidae: Scolia bicincta fq; Vespidae: Polistes annularis, Polistes fuscata; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Eumenes fraterna; Ichneumonidae: Exetastes suaveolens

Flies
Syrphidae: Eristalis dimidiatus, Eristalis transversus fq, Helophilus fasciatus, Toxomerus marginatus; Bombyliidae: Poecilanthrax alcyon, Sparnopolius confusus fq (Rb, Gr), Systoechus vulgaris; Tachinidae: Archytas aterrima fq, Plagiomima spinosula; Calliphoridae: Cochliomyia macellaria; Muscidae: Neomyia cornicina; Anthomyiidae: Zaphne ambigua

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Danaus plexippus fq, Limenitis archippus, Phyciodes tharos, Vanessa atalanta, Vanessa virginiensis; Pieridae: Colias philodice fq; Lycaenidae: Lycaena hyllus

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Atalopedes campestris

Moths
Ctenuchidae: Cisseps fulvicollis; Noctuidae: Anagrapha falcifera, Feltia jaculifera, Helicoverpa zea, Heliothis sp.

Beetles
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus sn fq; Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica undecimpunctata fp np

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Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Dioxyna bidentis feeds within capitulum of Bidens cernua
Remarks: Other: uncertain

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Podosphaera fusca parasitises live Bidens cernua

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Bidens cernua

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bidens cernua

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 13
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Bidens cernua

Bidens cernua, commonly called called nodding beggarticks[4] or nodding bur-marigold, is an herbaceous plant native to North America. It grows from 30-100cm tall in wet areas. The leaves are sessile with a coarsely-toothed margin.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". 
  2. ^ "IPNI entry for Coreopsis ridens". 
  3. ^ "IPNI entry for Bidens venosa". 
  4. ^ Voss, E.G. (1996). Michigan Flora: A guide to the identification and occurrence of the native and naturalized seed-plants of the state. Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae–Compositae). Bulletin 61. Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.: Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium. 
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Notes

Comments

Bidens cernua is used medicinally to treat urinary-tract infections.
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