Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

This is one of the more common Bidens spp. The species in this genus can be divided into two groups
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Description

This native annual plant is 1-3' tall, branching occasionally in the upper half. The stems are glabrous or they have a few scattered white hairs; they are often purple in bright sunlight, otherwise light green or reddish green. The compound leaves are usually odd-pinnate, consisting of 3 or 5 leaflets. Often, there are simple leaves near the flowerheads. These leaves occur oppositely along the stems, although some of the upper leaves may be alternate. The compound leaves have long petioles. The leaflets are up to 3" long and 1" across. They are lanceolate, coarsely serrated, and usually hairless, although their lower surface may be slightly pubescent. The tips of the leaflets are rather long and pointed. Some of the upper stems terminate in individual flowerheads about ¾–1" across on long stalks; some stalks may have 1-2 additional flowerheads that are smaller in size. The flowerheads consist of numerous disk florets that have golden yellow corollas; petaloid rays are absent. The flowerhead bases are surrounded by 6-10 leaf-like outer bracts (phyllaries); they are usually 8 in number. These narrow bracts are green and slightly ciliate. The blooming period occurs from late summer to early fall, lasting about 1-2 months. There is no noticeable floral scent. The dark achenes are flattened, each one terminating in a pair of long and slender awns. These awns have tiny barbs that point downward. Because of their light weight, the achenes can be blown about by wind. The root system consists of a shallow taproot that branches frequently. During the autumn, the leaves often turn purple. Cultivation
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Common Beggar-Ticks occurs in most counties of Illinois, and it is quite common; official records probably underestimate its distribution in some areas (see Distribution Map). Habitats include moist areas of black soil prairies, moist meadows near woodlands or rivers, openings in floodplain woodlands and young flatwoods, thickets, marshes, swamps, seeps, borders of ponds or lakes, poorly drained areas along railroads and roadsides, both cultivated and abandoned fields, banks of drainage canals, and miscellaneous waste areas. This plant likes disturbed areas. Faunal Associations
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annuals, (10–)20–60(–180) cm. Leaves: petioles 10–40(–60) mm; blades deltate to lance-ovate overall, 30–80(–150+) × 20–60(–100+) mm, 3(–5)-foliolate, leaflets petiolulate, lanceolate to lance-ovate, (15–)35–60(–120) × (5–)10–20(–30) mm, bases cuneate, margins dentate to serrate, sometimes ciliate, apices acuminate to attenuate, faces glabrous or hirtellous. Heads usually borne singly, sometimes in 2s or 3s or in open, corymbiform arrays. Peduncles 10–40(–80+) mm. Calyculi of (5–)8(–10) ascending to spreading, spatulate or oblanceolate to linear, sometimes ± foliaceous bractlets or bracts 5–20(–60) mm, margins usually ciliate, abaxial faces glabrous or hirtellous. Involucres campanulate to hemispheric or broader, 6–9 × 7–12 mm. Phyllaries 6–12, oblong or ovate to lance-ovate, 5–9 mm. Ray florets 0 or 1–3+; laminae golden yellow, 2–3.5 mm. Disc florets 20–60(–120+); corollas ± orange, 2.5–3+ mm. Cypselae blackish to brown or stramineous, ± obcompressed, obovate to cuneate, outer 5–7 mm, inner 7–10 mm, margins antrorsely or retrorsely barbed, apices ± truncate to concave, faces usually 1-nerved, sometimes tuberculate, glabrous or sparsely hirtellous; pappi of 2 ± erect to spreading, antrorsely or retrorsely barbed awns 2–5 mm. 2n = 24, 48, 72.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Bidens frondosa var. anomala Porter ex Fernald; B. frondosa var. caudata Sherff; B. frondosa var. pallida (Wiegand) Wiegand; B. frondosa var. stenodonta Fernald & H. St. John; B. melanocarpa Wiegand
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Common Beggar-Ticks occurs in most counties of Illinois, and it is quite common; official records probably underestimate its distribution in some areas (see Distribution Map). Habitats include moist areas of black soil prairies, moist meadows near woodlands or rivers, openings in floodplain woodlands and young flatwoods, thickets, marshes, swamps, seeps, borders of ponds or lakes, poorly drained areas along railroads and roadsides, both cultivated and abandoned fields, banks of drainage canals, and miscellaneous waste areas. This plant likes disturbed areas. Faunal Associations
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Common Beggar's Ticks in Illinois

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Bidens frondosa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bidens frondosa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Wikipedia

Bidens frondosa

Bidens frondosa is a species of flowering plant in the aster family, Asteraceae. It is native to North America, where it is distributed across Canada to Alaska and most all of the contiguous United States,[1] and into Mexico.[2] It is known in many other parts of the world as an introduced species, including Europe, Asia, Morocco, and New Zealand.[1] Its many common names include devil's beggarticks, devil's-pitchfork, devil's bootjack, sticktights, bur marigold, pitchfork weed, tickseed sunflower,[3] leafy beggarticks,[4] and common beggar-ticks.[5]

Description[edit]

This annual herb is usually about 20 to 60 centimeters tall, but it can reach 1.8 meters at times. The stems are squared and may branch near the top. The leaves are pinnate, divided into a few toothed triangular or lance-shaped leaflets usually up to 6 or 8 centimeters long, sometimes up to 12. The inflorescence is often a solitary flower head, but there may be pairs or arrays of several heads. The head contains many orange disc florets. It often lacks ray florets but some heads have a few small yellow rays. The fruit is a flat black or brown barbed cypsela up to a centimeter long which has two obvious hornlike pappi at one end.[2][4][6][7]

The barbed pappi on the fruit help it stick to animals, facilitating seed dispersal.[6]

Ecology[edit]

The defoliating caterpillar of Hadjina chinensis, which is limited to Bidens species, has been observed on this plant.[8]

Invasive species[edit]

This plant is invasive in some parts of the world. In New Zealand it is classed as an environmental weed by the Department of Conservation.[9] It is also weedy in its native range, occurring in pastures and fields and along roadsides.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bidens frondosa. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).
  2. ^ a b Bidens frondosa. Flora of North America.
  3. ^ Bidens frondosa. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
  4. ^ a b Bidens frondosa. Burke Museum. University of Washington.
  5. ^ Bidens frondosa. Freckmann Herbarium. University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.
  6. ^ a b c Devils Beggarticks or Stick-tights: Bidens frondosa. Virginia Tech Weed Identification Guide.
  7. ^ Bidens frondosa. The Jepson eFlora 2013.
  8. ^ Han, Y. G., et al. (2009). Insect herbivores associated with the introduced weed Bidens frondosa L.(Asteraceae) in Korea, and their potential role as augmentative biological control agents. Entomological Research 39(6), 394-400.
  9. ^ Howell, C. (May 2008). Consolidated List of Environmental Weeds in New Zealand. 292. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Conservation. ISBN 978-0-478-14413-0. 
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Notes

Comments

Infusions and tinctures of Bidens frondosa are rated as outstanding herbal therapies for irritation, inflammation, pain, and bleeding of the urinary tract mucosa and are used for benign prostatic hypertrophy and increasing excretion of uric acid, decreasing the risk of gout attacks, as well as other medical uses (M. Moore 1993).
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