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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt.:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Berberis aquifolium Pursh:
Canada (North America)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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B.C.; Calif., Idaho, Mont., Oreg., Wash.
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Global Range: Mahonia aquifolium has two divergent ranges in North America; Alberta south through California and northern Mexico and Ontario south through Kentucky. It is native in Alberta south through California, but an escaped landscaping plant in the eastern portion of the U.S. and Canadian range.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs , evergreen, 0.3-3(-4.5) m. Stems usually monomorphic, seldom with short axillary shoots. Bark of 2d-year stems gray-brown or purplish, glabrous. Bud scales 4-8(-14) mm, deciduous. Spines absent. Leaves 5-9-foliolate; petioles 1-6 cm. Leaflet blades thin and flexible or rather rigid; surfaces abaxially glossy, smooth, adaxially glossy, green; terminal leaflet stalked, blade 5.1-8.7(-14.5) × 2.4-4.5(-5.5) cm, 1.7-2.5 times as long as wide; lateral leaflet blades lance-ovate to lance-elliptic, 1(-3)-veined from base, base obtuse or truncate, rarely weakly cordate, margins plane or undulate, toothed, each with 5-21 teeth 0-2 mm tipped with spines to 0.8-2.2 × 0.2-0.3 mm, apex acute or sometimes obtuse or rounded. Inflorescences racemose, dense, 30-60-flowered, 3-9(-11) cm; bracteoles membranous, apex rounded or obtuse, sometimes apiculate. Flowers: anther filaments with distal pair of recurved lateral teeth. Berries blue, glaucous, oblong-ovoid, 6-10 mm, juicy, solid. 2 n = 28, 56.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nuttall
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Ecology

Habitat

Open woods and shrublands; 0-2100m.
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Comments: Relatively dry to moist rocky sites in open coniferous forests, and forested slopes from 400-2,100 m (Pojar and MacKinnon 1994, Vance et al. in press).

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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
epiphyllous, dimorphic conidioma of Ceuthospora coelomycetous anamorph of Ceuthospora mahoniae is saprobic on dead leaf of Mahonia aquifolium
Remarks: season: 3-4

Foodplant / parasite
aecium of Cumminsiella mirabilissima parasitises live leaf of Mahonia aquifolium
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious, covered then erumpent stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora foliicola is saprobic on dead leaf of Mahonia aquifolium

Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe berberidis parasitises Mahonia aquifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma mahoniae feeds on leaf of Mahonia aquifolium

Foodplant / spot causer
scattered, smoky-ochraceous, often barren pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta mahoniae causes spots on fading leaf of Mahonia aquifolium
Remarks: season: 9-3

Foodplant / feeds on
scattered to loosely gregarious pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta mahoniana feeds on fading leaf of Mahonia aquifolium
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / parasite
pycnium of Puccinia graminis parasitises live, fresh leaf of Mahonia aquifolium
Other: minor host/prey

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General Ecology

Berries and leaves are browsed by ungulates and rodents (Tilford 1998).

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering winter-spring (Mar-Jun).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Mahonia aquifolium

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Berberis aquifolium

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Mahonia aquifolium is native and relatively common in western North America, from Alberta south through California into northern Mexico. Roots, stem, and leaves of this species are wild-collected for medicinal use and are traded in the medicinal, herbal, and landscaping markets. M. aquifolium is reportedly used as a substitute for an herb that is heavily commercially traded. It is also the preferred species in this genus for commercial collection due to its large root size. This species may be threatened over time by increased interest in its medicinal properties if wild-collection is not monitored.

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Threats

Comments: Mahonia species are reportedly used as a substitute for goldenseal (Tilford 1998). Some experts in the medicinal plant industry have suggested that trade is medium to large and demand has increased over the past ten years (Robbins 1999). According to Michael McGuffin, president of the American Herbal Products Association, current demand is relatively modest. But increased interest is possible. Therefore, trends in commercial interest and collecting activities should continue to be monitored even though it is relatively common in its native range. This species is traded in the medicinal, herbal, and landscaping markets (Vance et al. in press). Mahonia aquifolium is the preferred species in this genus for commercial collection due to large root size (Vance et al. in press). See Vance et al. (in press) for suggested guidelines for sustainable harvesting techniques.

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG, LANDSCAPING, Cultivated ornamental

Production Methods: Cultivated, Wild-harvested

Comments: This species is cultivated and wild-collected; seeds and plants are commercially available (Vance et al. in press).

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Wikipedia

Mahonia aquifolium

Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon-grape or Oregon grape) is a species of flowering plant in the family Berberidaceae, native to western North America. It is an evergreen shrub growing to 1 m (3 ft) tall by 1.5 m (5 ft) wide, with pinnate leaves consisting of spiny leaflets, and dense clusters of yellow flowers in early spring, followed by dark bluish-black berries.[4]

Etymology[edit]

The specific epithet aquifolium means "holly-leaved", referring to the spiny foliage.[5] The common name is often (always in the UK) left un-hyphenated as Oregon grape, though doing so invites confusion with the true grapes. Some writers avoid this confusion by using "Oregon grape-holly", or "Oregon holly-grape" as a vernacular name for any species of mahonia. It also occasionally appears in print as Oregongrape. There are several common species of Oregon-grape, many with numerous cultivated varieties (cultivars). Among these are tall Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium), cascade, low, or dwarf Oregon grape, (M. nervosa), creeping Oregon grape (M. repens).

Description[edit]

M. aquifolium grows to 1–2 m (3 ft 3 in–6 ft 7 in) tall by 1.5 m (5 ft) wide, with pinnate leaves up to 30 cm (12 in) long, each leaf made up of spiny leaflets. The leathery leaves resemble holly and the stems and twigs have a thickened, corky appearance. The flowers, borne in dense clusters in late spring, are yellow, and are followed by spherical dark dusty blue berries, which give rise to the common name "Oregon grape".[6]

Taxonomy[edit]

Some authors place Mahonia in the barberry genus, Berberis. [7][8][9][10] The Oregon-grape is not related to true grapes, but gets its name from the purple clusters of berries whose color and slightly dusted appearance are reminiscent of grapes. .

The yellow flowers are in a raceme 3–8 cm long. Bombus species and other insects pollinate the flowers.
Each of the six stamens, opposite the petals, terminate in two spreading branches. The six bright yellow petals are enclosed by six bright yellow sepals. At the base of the flower are three greenish-yellow bracts. Less than half as long as the sepals, only one is partially visible.

Distribution[edit]

Mahonia aquifolium is a native plant in the North American West from Southeast Alaska to Northern California, and eastern Alberta to southern Colorado, often occurring in the understory of Douglas-fir forests (although other forest types contain the species) and in brushlands in the Cascades, Rockies, and northern Sierras.

In some areas outside its native range, M. aquifolium has been classified as an invasive exotic species that may displace native vegetation.[11][12][13][14]

Cultivation[edit]

M. aquifolium is a popular subject in shady or woodland plantings. It is valued for its striking foliage and flowers, which often appear before those of other shrubs. It is resistant to summer drought, tolerates poor soils, and does not create excessive leaf litter. Its berries attract birds.[4]

Numerous cultivars and hybrids have been developed, of which the following have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-

Other Uses[edit]

The small purplish-black fruits, which are quite tart and contain large seeds, are included in smaller quantities in the traditional diets of Pacific Northwest aboriginal peoples, mixed with Salal or another sweeter fruit. Today they are sometimes used to make jelly, alone or mixed with salal.[17] Oregon grape juice can be fermented to make wine, similar to European barberry wine folk traditions, although it requires an unusually high amount of sugar.[18] The inner bark of the larger stems and roots of Oregon-grape yield a yellow dye; the berries give purple dye.[19] As the leaves of Oregon-grape are holly-like and resist wilting, the foliage is sometimes used by florists for greenery and a small gathering industry has been established in the Pacific Northwest.

Medicinal use[edit]

Some Plateau Indian tribes used Oregon-grape to treat dyspepsia.[20]

Certain extracts from Mahonia aquifolium may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis,[21][22][23] although side effects include rash and a burning sensation when applied.[21]

Recent studies indicate that M. aquifolium contains a specific multidrug resistance pump inhibitor (MDR inhibitor) named 5'-methoxyhydnocarpin (5'-MHC) which works to decrease bacterial resistance to antibiotics and antibacterial agents.[24]

Culture[edit]

Oregon grape is the state flower of Oregon.[25]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tropicos
  2. ^ The Plant List
  3. ^ Flora of North America vol 3
  4. ^ a b RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1-4053-3296-4. 
  5. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-84533-731-5. 
  6. ^ Michael P. Williams (2012). "Berberis aquifolium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora". Retrieved 2013-08-08. 
  7. ^ Flora of North America, vol 3
  8. ^ Loconte, H., & J. R. Estes. 1989. Phylogenetic systematics of Berberidaceae and Ranunculales (Magnoliidae). Systematic Botany 14:565-579.
  9. ^ Marroquín, Jorge S., & Joseph E. Laferrière. 1997. Transfer of specific and infraspecific taxa from Mahonia to Berberis. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 30(1):53-55.
  10. ^ Laferrière, Joseph E. 1997. Transfer of specific and infraspecific taxa from Mahonia to Berberis. Bot. Zhurn. 82(9):96-99.
  11. ^ Introduced Shrubs of Birmingham and the Black Country
  12. ^ North Carolina Botanical Garden / Conservation / Plants to Avoid in the Southeastern United States
  13. ^ Plants to Avoid in the Southeastern United States Tennessee Invasive Exotic Plant List
  14. ^ TN Invasive Exotic Plant List
  15. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Mahonia × wagneri 'Pinnacle'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  16. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Mahonia aquifolium 'Apollo'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  17. ^ Pojar, Jim; MacKinnon, Andy, eds. (1994). Plants of Coastal British Columbia: including Washington, Oregon & Alaska, rev. ed. Vancouver: Lone Pine Publishing. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-55105-532-9. 
  18. ^ Henderson, Robert K. (2000). The Neighbourhood Forager. Toronto, Ontario: Key Porter Books. p. 111. ISBN 1-55263-306-3. 
  19. ^ Bliss, Anne (1993). North American Dye Plants, rev. and enl. ed. Loveland, Colorado: Interweave Press. p. 130. ISBN 0-934026-89-0. 
  20. ^ Hunn, Eugene S. (1990). Nch'i-Wana, "The Big River": Mid-Columbia Indians and Their Land. University of Washington Press. p. 352. ISBN 0-295-97119-3. 
  21. ^ a b Donsky, Howard; Don Clarke. "Relieva, a Mahonia Aquifolium Extract for the Treatment of Adult Patients With Atopic Dermatitis". Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  22. ^ Rackova L, Oblozinsky M, Kostalova D, Kettmann V, Bezakova L (2007). "Free radical scavenging activity and lipoxygenase inhibition of Mahonia aquifolium extract and isoquinoline alkaloids". J Inflamm (Lond) 4: 15. doi:10.1186/1476-9255-4-15. PMC 1994948. PMID 17634120. 
  23. ^ Bernstein, Steve et al.. "Treatment of Mild to Moderate Psoriasis with Relieva, a Mahonia aquifolium Extract-A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study". Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  24. ^ Stermitz FR, Lorenz P, Tawara JN, Zenewicz LA, Lewis K (February 2000). "Synergy in a medicinal plant: antimicrobial action of berberine potentiated by 5'-methoxyhydnocarpin, a multidrug pump inhibitor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (4): 1433–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.030540597. PMC 26451. PMID 10677479. 
  25. ^ "State Symbols: Flag to Motto". Oregon Blue Book. Oregon Secretary of State. 2012. Retrieved 1 January 2013. 
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Berberis piperiana

Berberis piperiana is a shrub native to the mountains of northern California and southwestern Oregon. It is found in open and wooded slopes at elevations of 900-1700 m (3000-5700 feet).[2]


Berberis piperiana can attain a height of up to 80 cm (30 inches). Leaves are evergreen, pinnately compound with 5-9 leaflets. Berries are dark blue and waxy. The species is related to the more common Oregon-grape, B. aquifolium, but distinguished by its shorter stature and broader leaflets.[2][3][4]

The compound leaves place this species in the group sometimes segregated as the genus Mahonia.[2][5][6][7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tropicos
  2. ^ a b c Flora of North America vol 3
  3. ^ McMinn, Howard Earnest. Illustrated Manual of California Shrubs 125. 1939.
  4. ^ Abrams, LeRoy. Phytologia 1: 91. 1934.
  5. ^ Loconte, H., & J. R. Estes. 1989. Phylogenetic systematics of Berberidaceae and Ranunculales (Magnoliidae). Systematic Botany 14:565-579.
  6. ^ Marroquín, Jorge S., & Joseph E. Laferrière. 1997. Transfer of specific and infraspecific taxa from Mahonia to Berberis. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 30(1):53-55.
  7. ^ Laferrière, Joseph E. 1997. Transfer of specific and infraspecific taxa from Mahonia to Berberis. Bot. Zhurn. 82(9):96-99.
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Notes

Comments

Berberis aquifolium is the state flower of Oregon. It is widely used as an ornamental and has been reported as an escape from cultivation in scattered localities across the continent (Ontario, Quebec, central California, Michigan, and Nevada). 

 Berberis aquifolium is resistant to infection by Puccinia graminis .

Medicinally, various root preparations of Berberis aquifolium were used by Native Americans for stomach trouble, hemorrhages, and tuberculosis; as a panacea, a tonic, a gargle, and an eye wash; and to purify blood. Leaves and roots were used in steam baths to treat yellow fever; karok was used as a poison; and the tips of stems were used to treat stomach aches (D. E. Moermann 1986).

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Classified in the genus Mahonia by Kartesz (1994) and many other sources; also sometimes treated in the genus Berberis as B. aquifolium. LEM 20Aug01.

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