The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1. Allen, Barbara H.; Bartolome, James W. 1989. Cattle grazing effects on understory cover and tree growth in mixed conifer clearcuts. Northwest Science. 63(5): 214-220. [10932]
  • 1. National Biodiversity Network Species Dictionary (Feb 2003) http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nbn/http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nbn/ External link.
  • 10. Ashton, D. H. 1981. Fire in tall open-forests (wet sclerophyll forests). In: Gill, A. M.; Groves, R. H.; Noble, I. R., eds. Fire and the Australian biota. Canberra City, ACT: The Australian Academy of Science: 339-366. [21566]
  • 101. Meinecke, E. P. 1929. Quaking aspen: A study in applied forest pathology. Tech. Bull. No. 155. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 34 p. [26669]
  • 102. Messinger, Richard Duane. 1974. Effects of controlled burning on waterfowl nesting habitat in northwest Iowa. Ames, IA: Iowa State University. 49 p. Thesis. [20673]
  • 103. Michaux, B. 1989. Reproductive and vegetative biology of Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. (Compositae: Cynareae). New Zealand Journal of Botany. 27(3): 401-414. [41131]
  • 104. Miller, Richard F.; Krueger, William C.; Vavra, Martin. 1986. Twelve years of plant succession on a seeded clearcut under grazing and protection from cattle. In: Special Report 773. 1986 Progress report...research in rangeland management. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Agricultural Experiment Station: 4-10. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. [3650]
  • 105. Miller, Richard F.; Rose, Jeffery A. 1995. Historic expansion of Juniperus occidentalis (western juniper) in southeastern Oregon. The Great Basin Naturalist. 55(1): 37-45. [25666]
  • 106. Mitich, Larry W. 1998. Bull thistle, Cirsium vulgare. Weed Technology. 12(4): 761-763. [41067]
  • 107. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. [Revised edition]. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]
  • 108. Moir, William H. 1982. A fire history of the High Chisos, Big Bend National Park, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist. 27(1): 87-98. [5916]
  • 109. Morrison, Peter H.; Swanson, Frederick J. 1990. Fire history and pattern in a Cascade Range landscape. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-254. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 77 p. [13074]
  • 11. Austin, M. P.; Groves, R. H.; Fresco, L. M. F.; Kaye, P. E. 1985. Relative growth of six thistle species along a nutrient gradient with multispecies competition. Journal of Ecology. 73: 667-684. [41053]
  • 110. Myers, Ronald L. 2000. Fire in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 161-173. [36985]
  • 111. Nyboer, Randy W. 1981. Grazing as a factor in the decline of Illinois hill prairies. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The Prairie Peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 209-211. [3408]
  • 112. O'Kennon, Bob; Nesom, Guy. 1988. First report of Cirsium vulgare (Asteraceae) from Texas. SIDA. 13(1): 115-116. [41132]
  • 113. Outcalt, Kenneth Wayne; White, Edwin H. 1981. Phytosociological changes in understory vegetation following timber harvest in northern Minnesota. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 11: 175-183. [16301]
  • 114. Parendes, Laurie A.; Jones, Julia A. 2000. Role of light availability and dispersal in exotic plant invasion along roads and streams in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon. Conservation Biology. 14(1): 64-75. [36371]
  • 115. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Haase, Sally M.; Harrington, Michael G.; Narog, Marcia G.; Sackett, Stephen S.; Wilson, Ruth C. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]
  • 116. Popay, A. I.; Medd, R. W. 1990. The biology of Australian weeds 21. Carduus nutans L. spp nutans. Plant Protection Quarterly. 5(1): 3-13. [23673]
  • 118. Pratt, David W.; Black, R. Alan; Zamora, B. A. 1984. Buried viable seed in a ponderosa pine community. Canadian Journal of Botany. 62: 44-52. [16219]
  • 12. Baisan, Christopher H.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1990. Fire history on a desert mountain range: Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Arizona, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 1559-1569. [14986]
  • 120. Randall, John M. 1990. Establishment and control of bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) in Yosemite Valley. In: van Riper, Charles, III; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Veirs, Stephen D., Jr.; Hillyer, Silvia Castillo, eds. Examples of resource inventory and monitoring in National Parks of California: proceedings of the 3rd biennial conference on research in California's national parks; 1988 September 13-15; Davis, CA. Transactions and Proceedings Series No. 8. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service: 177-193. [61416]
  • 121. Randall, John M. 1991. Population dynamics and control of bull thistle, Cirsium vulgare, in Yosemite Valley. In: Center, Ted D.; Doren, Robert F.; Hofstetter, Ronald L.; [and others], eds. Proceedings of the symposium on exotic pest plants; 1988 November 2-4; Miami, FL. Tech. Rep. NPS/NREVER/NRTR-91/06. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service: 261-281. [17871]
  • 122. Randall, John M. 2000. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore. In: Bossard, Carla C.; Randall, John M.; Hoshovsky, Marc C., eds. Invasive plants of California's wildlands. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press: 112-119. [41140]
  • 123. Randall, John M.; Rejmanek, Marcel. 1993. Interference of bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) with growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings in a forest plantation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 23(8): 1507-1513. [22286]
  • 124. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]
  • 125. Rees, N. E.; Littlefield, J. L.; Bruckart, W. L.; Baudoin, A. 1996. Musk thistle: Carduus nutans (group). In: Rees, Norman E.; Quimby, Paul C., Jr.; Piper, Gary L.; [and others], eds. Biological control of weeds in the West. Bozeman, MT: Western Society of Weed Science. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; Montana Department of Agriculture; Montana State University: Section II. [40873]
  • 126. Rees, N. E.; Quimby, P. C., Jr.; Mullin, B. H. 1996. Section I. Biological control of weeds. In: Rees, Norman E.; Quimby, Paul C., Jr.; Piper, Gary L.; [and others], eds. Biological control of weeds in the West. Bozeman, MT: Western Society of Weed Science. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; Montana Department of Agriculture; Montana State University: 3-24. [38273]
  • 127. Rees, Norman E. 1991. Biological control of thistles. In: James, Lynn F.; Evans, John O.; Ralphs, Michael H.; Child, R. Dennis, eds. Noxious range weeds. Westview Special Studies in Agricultural Science and Policy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press: 264-273. [23554]
  • 128. Rejmanek, Marcel; Leps, Jan. 1996. Negative associations can reveal interspecific competition and reversal of competitive hierarchies during succession. Oikos. 76(1): 161-168. [41136]
  • 129. Rice, Barry Meyers; Randall, John M., compilers. 2001. Weed report: Cirsium vulgare--bull thistle. In: Wildland weeds management and research: 1998-99 weed survey. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy, Wildland Invasive Species Program. 5 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [41139]
  • 13. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 130. Ripple, William J. 1994. Historic spatial patterns of old forests in western Oregon. Journal of Forestry. 92(11): 45-49. [33881]
  • 131. Robinson, Myles C.; Chilcote, W. W. 1962. Temperature microenvironments associated with early stages in plant succession on Douglas-fir clear-cuts in the Oregon Coast Range. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America. 43(3): 74. [41138]
  • 132. Romme, William H. 1982. Fire and landscape diversity in subalpine forests of Yellowstone National Park. Ecological Monographs. 52(2): 199-221. [9696]
  • 133. Rutledge, Chris R.; McLendon, Terry. 2002. Cirsium vulgare. In: An assessment of exotic plant species of Rocky Mountain National Park, [Online]. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University, Department of Rangeland and Ecosystem Science. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page. Jamestown, ND: U.S. Geological Survey, (Producer). Available: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/othrdata/Explant/cirsvulg.htm [2002 April 22]. [41141]
  • 134. Sapsis, David B. 1990. Ecological effects of spring and fall prescribed burning on basin big sagebrush/Idaho fescue--bluebunch wheatgrass communities. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 105 p. Thesis. [16579]
  • 135. Schultz, Brad W. 1987. Ecology of curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) in western and central Nevada: population structure and dynamics. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 111 p. Thesis. [7064]
  • 136. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2nd ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 137. Shearer, Raymond C.; Stickney, Peter F. 1991. Natural revegetation of burned and unburned clearcuts in western larch forests of northwest Montana. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 66-74. [16635]
  • 138. Sheley, Roger L. 2001. Ecological principles for managing knapweed. In: Smith, Lincoln, ed. Proceedings, 1st international knapweed symposium of the 21st century; 2001 March 15-16; Coeur d'Alene, ID. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service: 62. Abstract. [37834]
  • 139. Sheley, Roger; Manoukian, Mark; Marks, Gerald. 1999. Preventing noxious weed invasion. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 69-72. [35711]
  • 14. Beck, K. George. 1991. Biennial thistle control with herbicides. In: James, Lynn F.; Evans, John O.; Ralphs, Michael H.; Child, R. Dennis, eds. Noxious range weeds. Westview Special Studies in Agricultural Science and Policy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press: 254-259. [23553]
  • 140. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]
  • 141. Simmerman, Dennis G.; Arno, Stephen F.; Harrington, Michael G.; Graham, Russell T. 1991. A comparison of dry and moist fuel underburns in ponderosa pine shelterwood units in Idaho. In: Andrews, Patricia L.; Potts, Donald F., eds. Proceedings, 11th annual conference on fire and forest meteorology; 1991 April 16-19; Missoula, MT. SAF Publication 91-04. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters: 387-397. [16186]
  • 142. Smith, Tim E., ed. 2001. Vegetation management guideline: Musk thistle (Carduus nutans L.), [Online]. In: Missouri vegetation management guideline. Jefferson City, MO: Missouri Department of Conservation (Producer). Available: http://conservation.state.mo.us/nathis/exotic/vegman/eighteen.htm [2002, March 11]. [41083]
  • 143. Stickney, Peter F. 1980. Data base for post-fire succession, first 6 to 9 years, in Montana larch-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-62. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 133 p. [6583]
  • 145. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 146. Strickler, Gerald S.; Edgerton, Paul J. 1976. Emergent seedlings from coniferous litter and soil in eastern Oregon. Ecology. 57: 801-807. [2039]
  • 147. Stuart, John D. 1987. Fire history of an old-growth forest of Sequoia sempervirens (Taxodiaceae) forest in Humboldt Redwoods State Park, California. Madrono. 34(2): 128-141. [7277]
  • 148. Swetnam, Thomas W.; Baisan, Christopher H.; Caprio, Anthony C.; Brown, Peter M. 1992. Fire history in a Mexican oak-pine woodland and adjacent montane conifer gallery forest in southeastern Arizona. In: Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Bennett, Duane A.; Hernandez C., Victor Manuel; Ortega-Rubio, Alfred; Hamre, R. H., tech. coords. Ecology and management of oak and associated woodlands: perspectives in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico: Proceedings; 1992 April 27-30; Sierra Vista, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-218. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 165-173. [19759]
  • 15. Beck, K. George. 1999. Biennial thistles. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 145-161. [35718]
  • 150. Titus, Jonathan H.; Moore, Scott; Arnot, Mildred; Titus, Priscilla J. 1998. Inventory of the vascular flora of the blast zone, Mount St. Helens, Washington. Madrono. 45(2): 146-161. [30322]
  • 151. Tu, Mandy; Hurd, Callie; Randall, John M., eds. 2001. Weed control methods handbook: tools and techniques for use in natural areas. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy. 194 p. [37787]
  • 152. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 2001. Guide to noxious weed prevention practices. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 25 p. Available online: http://www.fs.fed.us/rangelands/ftp/invasives/documents/GuidetoNoxWeedPrevPractices_07052001.pdf [2005, October 25]. [37889]
  • 153. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2008. PLANTS Database, [Online]. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/. [34262]
  • 155. Uresk, Daniel W.; Severson, Kieth E. 1998. Response of understory species to changes in ponderosa pine stocking levels in the Black Hills. The Great Basin Naturalist. 58(4): 312-327. [29413]
  • 156. Vincent, Dwain W. 1992. The sagebrush/grasslands of the upper Rio Puerco area, New Mexico. Rangelands. 14(5): 268-271. [19698]
  • 157. Voss, Edward G. 1996. Michigan flora. Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae--Compositae). Bulletin 61: Cranbrook Institute of Science; University of Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor, MI: The Regents of the University of Michigan. 622 p. [30401]
  • 158. Wade, Dale D.; Brock, Brent L.; Brose, Patrick H.; Grace, James B.; Hoch, Greg A.; Patterson, William A., III. 2000. Fire in eastern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 53-96. [36983]
  • 159. Weaver, J. E. 1968. Prairie plants and their environment: A fifty-year study in the Midwest. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 276 p. [17547]
  • 16. Benson, Nathan C.; Kurth, Laurie L. 1995. Vegetation establishment on rehabilitated bulldozer lines after the 1988 Red Bench Fire in Glacier National Park. In: Brown, James K.; Mutch, Robert W.; Spoon, Charles W.; Wakimoto, Ronald H., technical coordinators. Proceedings: symposium on fire in wilderness and park management; 1993 March 30 - April 1; Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-320. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 164-167. [26216]
  • 160. Weber, William A.; Wittmann, Ronald C. 1996. Colorado flora: eastern slope. 2nd ed. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado. 524 p. [27572]
  • 161. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 163. Wilson, Gail W. T.; Hartnett, David C. 1998. Interspecific variation in plant responses to mycorrhizal colonization in tallgrass prairie. American Journal of Botany. 85(12): 1732-1738. [30311]
  • 164. Wilson, Linda M.; McCaffrey, Joseph P. 1999. Biological control of noxious rangeland weeds. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 97-115. [35715]
  • 165. Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p. [12908]
  • 166. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 806 p. [28655]
  • 167. Young, J. A.; Hedrick, D. W.; Keniston, R. F. 1967. Forest cover and logging--herbage and browse production in the mixed coniferous forest of northeastern Oregon. Journal of Forestry. 65: 807-813. [16290]
  • 168. Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A. 1981. Demography and fire history of a western juniper stand. Journal of Range Management. 34(6): 501-505. [2659]
  • 169. Youtie, Berta; Soll, Jonathan. 1990. Diffuse knapweed control on the Tom McCall Preserve and Mayer State Park. Unpublished report (prepared for the Mazama Research Committee) on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 18 p. [38353]
  • 17. Berch, Shannon M.; Gamiet, Sharmin; Deom, Elisabeth. 1988. Mycorrhizal status of some plants of southwestern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66: 1924-1928. [8841]
  • 18. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
  • 19. Buchholz, Kenneth; Good, Ralph E. 1982. Density, age structure, biomass and net annual aboveground productivity of dwarfed Pinus rigida Moll. from the New Jersey Pine Barren Plains. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 109(1): 24-34. [8639]
  • 2. Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. & Moore, D.M. (1987) Flora of the British Isles. 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • 2. Antos, Joseph A.; Shearer, Raymond C. 1980. Vegetation development on disturbed grand fir sites, Swan Valley, northwestern Montana. Res. Pap. INT-251. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 26 p. [7269]
  • 20. Bullock, J. M.; Hill, Clear B.; Dale, M. P.; Silvertown, J. 1994. An experimental study of the effect of sheep grazing on vegetation change in a species-poor grassland and the role of seedling recruitment into gaps. Journal of Applied Ecology. 31: 493-507. [24351]
  • 21. Burkhardt, Wayne J.; Tisdale, E. W. 1976. Causes of juniper invasion in southwestern Idaho. Ecology. 57: 472-484. [565]
  • 22. Burton, Douglas H.; Black, Hugh C. 1978. Feeding habits of Mazama pocket gophers in south-central Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management. 42(2): 383-390. [15818]
  • 23. Bussan, Alvin J.; Dyer, William E. 1999. Herbicides and rangeland. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 116-132. [35716]
  • 24. Cavers, Paul B.; Qaderi, Mirwais M.; Downs, Michael P.; [and others]. 1998. The thistles: a spectrum of seed banks. In: In: Weed seedbanks: determination, dynamics and manipulation: Proceedings; 1998 March 23-24; Oxford, UK. Aspects of Applied Biology 51. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: 135-141. [41129]
  • 25. Clark, Deborah L.; Wilson, Mark V. 1994. Heat-treatment effects on seed bank species of an old-growth Douglas-fir forest. Northwest Science. 68(1): 1-5. [25904]
  • 26. Coombs, E. M.; Piper, G. L.; Rees, N. E. 1996. Bull thistle: Cirsium vulgare. In: Rees, Norman E.; Quimby, Paul C., Jr.; Piper, Gary L.; [and others], eds. Biological control of weeds in the West. Bozeman, MT: Western Society of Weed Science. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; Montana Department of Agriculture; Montana State University: Section II. [40872]
  • 27. Cox, Stephen William. 1970. Microsite selection of resident and invading plant species following logging and slash burning on Douglas fir clear-cuts in the Oregon Coast Range. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 49 p. Thesis. [29736]
  • 28. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; Reveal, James L.; Holmgren, Patricia K. 1994. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 5: Asterales. New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 496 p. [28653]
  • 29. Crow, T. R.; Mroz, G. D.; Gale, M. R. 1991. Regrowth and nutrient accumulations following whole-tree harvesting of a maple-oak forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21: 1305-1315. [16600]
  • 3. Arno, Stephen F. 1980. Forest fire history in the Northern Rockies. Journal of Forestry. 78(8): 460-465. [11990]
  • 3. Preston, C.D., Pearman, D.A. & Dines, T.D. (2002) The New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 30. D'Antonio, Carla M. 2000. Fire, plant invasions, and global changes. In: Mooney, Harold A.; Hobbs, Richard J., eds. Invasive species in a changing world. Washington, DC: Island Press: 65-93. [37679]
  • 31. Dailey, Ryan. 2001. Fire and thistles [Email to Kris Zouhar]. Sioux Falls, SD: The Nature Conservancy of the Dakotas, South Dakota. On file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. [38366]
  • 32. Davis, Dan; Butterfield, Bart. 1991. The Bitterroot Grizzly Bear Evaluation Area: A report to the Bitterroot Technical Review Team. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 56 p. [30041]
  • 33. de Jong, Tom J.; Klinkhamer, Peter G. L. 1988. Population ecology of the biennials Cirsium vulgare and Cynoglossum officinale in a coastal sand-dune area. Journal of Ecology. 76: 366-382. [5008]
  • 34. de Jong, Tom J.; Klinkhamer, Peter G. L. 1988. Seedling establishment of the biennials Cirsium vulgare and Cynoglossum officinale in a sand-dune area: the implications of water for differential survival and growth. Journal of Ecology. 767: 393-402. [3517]
  • 35. DeFerrari, Collette M.; Naiman, Robert J. 1994. A multi-scale assessment of the occurrence of exotic plants on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. Journal of Vegetation Science. 5: 247-258. [23698]
  • 36. DeLoach, C. Jack. 1997. Biological control of weeds in the United States and Canada. In: Luken, James O.; Thieret, John W., eds. Assessment and management of plant invasions. New York: Springer-Verlag: 172-194. [38164]
  • 37. Dewey, Steven A. 1991. Weedy thistles of the western United States. In: James, Lynn F.; Evans, John O.; Ralphs, Michael H.; Child, R. Dennis, eds. Noxious range weeds. Westview Special Studies in Agricultural Science and Policy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press: 247-253. [23552]
  • 38. Dickie, J. B.; Gajjar, Kamini H.; Birch, P.; Harris, J. A. 1988. The survival of viable seeds in stored topsoil from opencast coal workings and its implications for site restoration. Biological Conservation. 43: 257-265. [16671]
  • 39. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany, No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 4. DEFRA. Spear thistle (Feb 2003) http://www.defra.gov.ukenviron/weedsact/spearths.pdfhttp://www.defra.gov.ukenviron/weedsact/spearths.pdf External link.
  • 4. Arno, Stephen F. 1996. Percent coverage for selected plant species at Lick Creek under different prescribed fire treatments. Unpublished data on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula, MT. 1 p. [37323]
  • 40. DiTomaso, Joe. 2001. Element stewardship abstract: Centaurea solstitialis L. In: Weeds on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program, [Online]. Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/centsols.html [2001, December 19]. [40416]
  • 41. Doucet, Colleen; Cavers, Paul B. 1996. A persistent seed bank of the bull thistle Cirsium vulgare. Canadian Journal of Botany. 74: 1386-1391. [27089]
  • 42. Doucet, Colleen; Cavers, Paul B. 1997. Induced dormancy and colour polymorphism in seeds of the bull thistle Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. Seed Science Research. 7(4): 399-407. [41134]
  • 43. Downs, Michael P.; Cavers, Paul B. 2000. Effects of wetting and drying on seed germination and seedling emergence of bull thistle, Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. Canadian Journal of Botany. 78(12): 1545-1551. [41135]
  • 44. Duchesne, Luc C.; Hawkes, Brad C. 2000. Fire in northern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 35-51. [36982]
  • 45. Edgerton, Paul J. 1987. Influence of ungulates on the development of the shrub understory of an upper slope mixed conifer forest. In: Provenza, Frederick D.; Flinders, Jerran T.; McArthur, E. Durant, compilers. Proceedings--symposium on plant-herbivore interactions; 1985 August 7-9; Snowbird, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-222. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 162-167. [7411]
  • 46. Elias, Thomas S.; Dykeman, Peter A. 1982. Field guide to North American edible wild plants. New York: Outdoor Life Books. 286 p. [21103]
  • 47. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]
  • 48. Finney, Mark A.; Martin, Robert E. 1989. Fire history in a Sequoia sempervirens forest at Salt Point State Park, California. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 19: 1451-1457. [9845]
  • 49. Forcella, F.; Wood, Helen. 1986. Demography and control of Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. in relation to grazing. Weed Research. 26(3): 199-206. [41127]
  • 5. Arno, Stephen F. 1999. Undergrowth response, shelterwood cutting unit. In: Smith, Helen Y., Arno, Stephen F., eds. Eighty-eight years of change in a managed ponderosa pine forest. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-23. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 36-37. [+ Appendix C: Summary of vegetation changes in shelterwood cutting unit]. [38264]
  • 5. Mabey, R. (1996) Flora Britannica. Sinclair-Stevenson, London.
  • 50. Forcella, Frank; Randall, John M. 1994. Biology of bull thistle, Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore. Review of Weed Science. 6: 29-50. [41130]
  • 51. Frissell, Sidney S., Jr. 1968. A fire chronology for Itasca State Park, Minnesota. Minnesota Forestry Research Notes No. 196. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota. 2 p. [34527]
  • 52. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]
  • 53. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 55. Gourley, Mark; Vomocil, Marc; Newton, Michael. 1990. Forest weeding reduces the effect of deer-browsing on Douglas-fir. Forest Ecology and Management. 36: 177-185. [13064]
  • 56. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 57. Green, Pat; Jensen, Mark. 1991. Plant succession within managed grand fir forests of northern Idaho. In: Harvey, Alan E.; Neuenschwander, Leon F., compilers. Proceedings--management and productivity of western-montane forest soils; 1990 April 10-12; Boise, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-280. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 232-236. [15987]
  • 58. Groves, R. H.; Kaye, P. E. 1989. Germination and phenology of seven introduced thistle species in southern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany. 37(4): 351-359. [41079]
  • 59. Gruell, G. E.; Loope, L. L. 1974. Relationships among aspen, fire, and ungulate browsing in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 33 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region. [3862]
  • 6. Arno, Stephen F. 2000. Fire in western forest ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 97-120. [36984]
  • 6. Press, B. & Gibbons, B (1993) Photographic field guide to wild flowers of Britain and Europe. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd, London.
  • 60. Hall, Frederick C. 1974. Prediction of plant community development and its use in management. In: Black, Hugh C., ed. Wildlife and forest management in the Pacific Northwest: Proceedings of a symposium; 1973 September 11-12; Corvallis, OR. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, School of Forestry, Forest Research Laboratory: 113-119. [7998]
  • 61. Halpern, Charles B.; Frenzen, Peter M.; Means, Joseph E.; Franklin, Jerry F. 1990. Plant succession in areas of scorched and blown-down forest after the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington. Journal of Vegetation Science. 1: 181-194. [13191]
  • 62. Harris, P.; Clapperton, M. J. 1997. An exploratory study on the influence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the success of weed biological control with insects. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 7(2): 193-201. [38345]
  • 63. Harris, P.; Shorthouse, J. D. 1996. Effectiveness of gall inducers in weed biological control. The Canadian Entomologist. 128(6): 1021-1055. [37288]
  • 64. Hartley, M. J. 1983. Effect of Scotch thistles on sheep growth rates. Proceedings, 36th New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference. 36: 86-88. [41133]
  • 65. Hayward, C. Lynn. 1952. Alpine biotic communities of the Uinta Mountains, Utah. Ecological Monographs. 22(2): 93-120. [11657]
  • 66. Heinselman, Miron L. 1970. The natural role of fire in northern conifer forests. In: The role of fire in the Intermountain West: Symposium proceedings; 1970 October 27-29; Missoula, MT. Missoula, MT: Intermountain Fire Research Council: 30-41. In cooperation with: University of Montana, School of Forestry. [15735]
  • 67. Hendrickson, William H. 1972. Perspective on fire and ecosystems in the United States. In: Fire in the environment: Symposium proceedings; 1972 May 1-5; Denver, CO. FS-276. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 29-33. In cooperation with: Fire Services of Canada, Mexico, and the United States; Members of the Fire Management Study Group; North American Forestry Commission; FAO. [17276]
  • 68. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 69. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 7. Arno, Stephen F.; Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire history at the forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 332-336. [342]
  • 70. Hulbert, Lloyd C. 1986. Fire effects on tallgrass prairie. In: Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds. The prairie: past, present and future: Proceedings of the 9th North American Prairie Conference; 1984 July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies: 138-142. [3550]
  • 71. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 72. Irwin, Larry L. 1976. Effects of intensive silviculture on big game forage sources in northern Idaho. In: Hieb, S., ed. Proceedings, elk-logging roads symposium. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho: 135-142. [16146]
  • 73. Jacobs, James S.; Carpinelli, Michael F.; Sheley, Roger L. 1999. Revegetating noxious weed-infested rangeland. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 133-141. [35717]
  • 74. Johnson, Douglas E. 1999. Surveying, mapping, and monitoring noxious weeds on rangelands. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 19-36. [35707]
  • 75. Kartesz, John T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1st ed. In: Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]
  • 76. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 77. Kendall, Deborah M. 1999. Biological controls of thistles. Annual report: May 1, 1998 - May 1, 1999. Cooperative Agreement CA 1268-1-9016. Project Number MEVE-R92-0197. Task Agreement Number FLC-24. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mesa Verde National Park. 46 p. Unpublished manuscript on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [34573]
  • 78. Kirt, Russell R. 1996. A nine-year assessment of successional trends in prairie plantings using seed broadcast and seedling transplant methods. In: Warwick, Charles, ed. 15th North American prairie conference: Proceedings; 1996 October 23-26; St. Charles, IL. Bend, OR: The Natural Areas Association: 144-153. [30259]
  • 79. Klinkamer, Peter G. L.; de Jong, Tom J.; Van Der Meijden, Ed. 1988. Production, dispersal and predation of seeds in the biennial Cirsium vulgare. Journal of Ecology. 76: 403-414. [5675]
  • 8. Arno, Stephen F.; Wilson, Andrew E. 1986. Dating past fires in curlleaf mountain-mahogany communities. Journal of Range Management. 39(3): 241-243. [350]
  • 80. Klinkhamer, Peter G. L.; De Jong, Tom J. 1993. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.: (Carduus lanceolatus L., Cirsium lanceolatum (L.) Scop., non Hill). Journal of Ecology. 81: 177-191. [20980]
  • 81. Kramer, Neal B.; Johnson, Frederic D. 1987. Mature forest seed banks of three habitat types in central Idaho. Canadian Journal of Botany. 65: 1961-1966. [3961]
  • 83. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. United States [Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States]. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 1:3,168,000; colored. [3455]
  • 84. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798]
  • 85. Lantagne, Douglas O. 1991. Tree shelters increase heights of planted northern red oaks. In: McCormick, Larry H.; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings, 8th central hardwood forest conference; 1991 March 4-6; University Park, PA. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-148. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 291-298. [15318]
  • 86. Laven, R. D.; Omi, P. N.; Wyant, J. G.; Pinkerton, A. S. 1980. Interpretation of fire scar data from a ponderosa pine ecosystem in the central Rocky Mountains, Colorado. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., tech. coords. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 46-49. [7183]
  • 88. Leininger, Wayne C. 1988. Non-chemical alternatives for managing selected plant species in the western United States. XCM-118. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University, Cooperative Extension. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 47 p. [13038]
  • 89. Louda, S. M.; Kendall, D.; Connor, J.; Simberloff, D. 1997. Ecological effects of an insect introduced for the biological control of weeds. Science. 277: 1088-1090. [41080]
  • 90. Lyon, L. Jack. 1971. Vegetal development following prescribed burning of Douglas-fir in south-central Idaho. Res. Pap. INT-105. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 30 p. [1495]
  • 91. Malanson, George P.; Butler, David R. 1991. Floristic variation among gravel bars in a subalpine river, Montana, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research. 23(3): 273-278. [16470]
  • 92. Marcum, Les. 1971. Vegetal development on montane fir clearcuts in western Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 122 p. Thesis. [36494]
  • 93. Martin, William C.; Hutchins, Charles R. 1981. A flora of New Mexico. Volume 2. Germany: J. Cramer. 2589 p. [37176]
  • 94. Matlack, Glenn R. 1987. Diaspore size, shape, and fall behavior in wind-dispersed plant species. American Journal of Botany. 74(8): 1150-1160. [28]
  • 95. McDonald, Philip M. 1999. Diversity, density, and development of early vegetation in a small clear-cut environment. Res. Pap. PSW-RP-239. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 22 p. [36204]
  • 96. McDonald, Philip M.; Fiddler, Gary O. 1995. Development of a mixed shrub - ponderosa pine community in a natural and treated condition. Res. Pap. PSW-RP-224. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 18 p. [34998]
  • 97. McDonald, Philip M.; Fiddler, Gary O. 1996. Development of a mixed shrub-tanoak-Douglas-fir community in a treated and untreated condition. Res. Pap. PSW-RP-225. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 16 p. [27731]
  • 98. McDonald, Philip M.; Helgerson, Ole T. 1990. Mulches aid in regenerating California and Oregon forests: past, present, and future. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-123. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 19 p. [15105]
  • Abrams, L. & R. S. Ferris. 1960. Bignonias to Sunflowers. 4: 732 pp. In L. Abrams (ed.) Ill. Fl. Pacific States. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi. (eds.) 1993. Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45: i–xl, 1–1286.
  • Cabrera, A. L. 1978. Compositae. 10: 1–726. In A. L. Cabrera (ed.) Fl. Prov. Jujuy. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Buenos Aires.
  • Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.
  • Cronquist, A.J. 1980. Asteraceae. 1: i–xv, 1–261. In Vasc. Fl. S.E. U. S. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Cronquist, A.J. 1994. Asterales. 5: 1–496. In A.J. Cronquist, A. H. Holmgren, N. H. Holmgren, J. L. Reveal & P. K. Holmgren (eds.) Intermount. Fl. Hafner Pub. Co., New York.
  • Davidse, G., M. Sousa-Peña, S. Knapp & F. Chiang Cabrera. 2014. Asteraceae. 5(2): ined. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez, S. Knapp & F. Chiang Cabrera (eds.) Fl. Mesoamer. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México.
  • Dillon, M. O. 1982. Family Compositae: Part IV. Tribe Cardueae. Flora of Peru. Fieldiana, Bot., n.s. 10: 1–8.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Flann C. (ed) (2013). GCC: Global Compositae Checklist (version 3 (Beta), Feb 2012). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Flora Napolitana 5: 209. 1835-1836. (Fl. Napol.)
  • Flora of China Editorial Committee. 1988-2013. Flora of China (Checklist & Addendum). Unpaginated. In C. Y. Wu, P. H. Raven & D. Y. Hong (eds.) Fl. China. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis.
  • Flora of China Editorial Committee. 2011. Flora of China (Asteraceae). 20–21: 1–992. In C. Y. Wu, P. H. Raven & D. Y. Hong (eds.) Fl. China. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, e. 2006. Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 6: Asteraceae, part 1. Fl. N. Amer. 19: i–xxiv, 1–579.
  • Forzza, R. C. 2010. Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Gleason, H. A. 1968. The Sympetalous Dicotyledoneae. vol. 3. 596 pp. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (ed. 3). New York Botanical Garden, New York.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hickman, J. C. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California 1–1400. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication. flowervisitors.info, version 06/2014.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication. illinoiswildflowers.info, version (09/2014) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Hultén, E. 1968. Fl. Alaska i–xxi, 1–1008. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages (http://bioimages.vanderbilt.edu/)   http://bioimages.vanderbilt.edu/baskauf/00000 External link.
  • Jeffrey, C. 1968. Notes on Compositae: III. The Cynareae in East Tropical Africa. Kew Bull. 22(1): 107–140.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & C. Ulloa Ulloa. 1994. Seed plants of the high Andes of Ecuador–A checklist. AAU Rep. 34: 1–443.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez. (eds.) 1999. Cat. Vasc. Pl. Ecuador, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Miss. Bot. Gard. 75: i–viii, 1–1181. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Luteyn, J. L. 1999. Páramos, a checklist of plant diversity, geographical distribution, and botanical literature. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 84: viii–xv, 1–278.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Marticorena, C. & M. Quezada. 1985. Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Chile. Gayana, Bot. 42: 1–157.
  • Moss, E. H. 1983. Fl. Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Munz, P. A. 1974. Fl. S. Calif. 1–1086. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora, Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Cranbrook Inst. of Science, Ann Arbor.
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
  • Zuloaga, F. O., O. N. Morrone, M. J. Belgrano, C. Marticorena & E. Marchesi. (eds.) 2008. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares del Cono Sur. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 107(1–3): i–xcvi, 1–3348.

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!