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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution in Egypt

Nile region and eastern desert.

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Global Distribution

Atlantic Islands, Europe, Mediterranean region, naturalized weed in many temperate regions.

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Distribution: Central and SW Asia westwards to Algeria, Europe; introduced in N & S America, Australia and New Zealand.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annuals, (5–)15–35(–90) cm, usually ill-scented. Stems green (sometimes red-tinged), usually erect, branched mostly distally or ± throughout, glabrous, glabrate, puberulent, or sparsely strigillose to strigoso-sericeous (glabrescent, hairs mostly medifixed) and gland-dotted. Leaf blades 25–55 × 15–30 mm, 1–2-pinnately lobed. Peduncles mostly (2–)4–6(–15) cm. Involucres 5–9 mm diam., ± villosulous to arachnose. Receptacles paleate mostly distally; paleae subulate to acerose 2–3+ mm (often gland-dotted). Ray florets 10–15, styliferous and sterile; corollas white, laminae 5–15+ mm. Disc corollas 2–2.5 mm (sparsely gland-dotted). Cypselae 1.3–2 mm, ribs ± tuberculate (furrows often gland-dotted); pappi 0. 2n = 18.
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Description

Annual, up to 60 (-70) cm tall, sparsely hairy or glabrescent herb. Leaves subsessile or shortly petiolate, lamina obovate-oblong or ovate-oblong, 1.5 – 6 cm long, 0.5 – 3 cm wide, 2-3-pinnatisect into narrowly linear, acute-acuminate, entire or 2-3-dented ultimate segments. Peduncles slender, up to 15 cm long, unthickened in fruit. Capitula solitary, radiate, sometimes discoid, 1.2 – 3 cm across. Phyllaries ovate-oblong, 3 – 4 x 1.5 – 2 mm, whitish hairy outside, narrowly scarious on margins, ± obtuse. Receptacle oblong-conical, 5 – 8 mm long, c. 3 mm wide, chaffy in the upper half, paleae linear-subulate, 2.5 – 3 mm long, persistent, bristly. Ray-florets sterile, tube glabrous, ligules white, oblong-elliptic, 5 – 14 x 3 – 6 mm, obtuse, rarely absent. Disc-florets yellow, as long as to ± longer than the paleae; corolla tube terete, glabrous, slightly inflated at the base. Cypselas subylindrical-turbinate, 1 – 1.5 mm long, light brown, obscurely 8 – 10-ribbed, tuberculate, exauriculate.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Anthemis foetida Lamarck; Chamaemelum cotula (Linnaeus) Allioni; Maruta cotula (Linnaeus) de Candolle
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Synonym

Cotula foetida S. G. Gmelin, Reisse Russl. 1: 137. 1774; Anthemis foetida Lamk., Fl. Fr. 2: 164. 1778; Maruta cotula (L.) DC., Prodr. 6: 13. 1837; Anthemis abyssinica J. Gay et A. Rich, Tent. Fl. Abyss. 1: 418. 1847; A. antiochia Eig in Pal. J. Bot. Jer. Ser. 1: 200. 1938.
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Ecology

Habitat

Sandy and alluvial soils, edges of cultivation.

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Dog Fennel in Illinois

Anthemis cotula (Dog Fennel) introduced
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen, flies & beetles suck nectar or feed on pollen, other insects suck nectar; observations are from Graenicher and Krombein et al. as indicated below, otherwise they are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile centuncularis sn cp (Gr), Megachile latimanus sn cp (Gr); Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades leavitti (Kr)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn cp (Gr), Augochlorella aurata sn cp, Augochlorella striata sn cp (Gr), Halictus confusus sn cp (Rb, Gr), Halictus ligatus sn cp fq, Halictus rubicunda sn cp (Rb, Gr), Lasioglossum albipennis sn cp (Gr), Lasioglossum cinctipes sn (Gr), Lasioglossum connexus sn cp (Gr), Lasioglossum imitatus sn cp (Rb, Gr), Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn cp (Gr), Lasioglossum tegularis sn cp (Gr), Lasioglossum versatus sn cp (Gr); Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes clematidis sn (Gr); Collitidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus mesillae (Kr); Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn (Gr), Calliopsis coloradensis (Kr)

Wasps
Sphecidae (Larrinae): Tachytes pepticus (Gr); Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris clypeata (Gr), Cerceris deserta (Gr), Philanthus bilunatus (Gr); Vespidae (Eumeninae): Ancistrocerus adiabatus (Gr)

Flies
Empididae: Empis clausa sn; Bombyliidae: Bombylius major sn (Gr), Villa alternata (Gr); Conopidae: Thecophora occidensis sn; Syrphidae: Eristalis anthophorina (Gr), Eristalis brousii (Gr), Eristalis dimidiatus (Gr), Eristalis transversus (Gr), Helophilus chrysostomus (Gr), Orthonevra pulchella (Gr), Sphaerophoria contiqua (Gr), Syritta pipiens (Gr), Syrphus ribesii (Gr), Toxomerus geminatus (Gr), Toxomerus marginatus (Gr), Tropidia quadrata (Gr); Tachinidae: Cylindromyia carolinae (Gr), Gymnoclytia immaculata (Gr), Gymnosoma fuliginosum (Gr), Leucostoma simplex (Gr), Tachinomyia panaetius (Gr); Sarcophagidae: Helicobia rapax (Gr), Sphixapata trilineata (Gr); Calliphoridae: Lucilia illustris (Gr), Lucilia sericata (Gr), Pollenia rudis (Gr); Muscidae: Musca domestica (Gr), Neomyia cornicina (Gr), Stomoxys calcitrans (Gr); Anthomyiidae: Anthomyia leucostoma (Gr), Calythea pratincola (Gr), Delia platura (Gr); Sepsidae: Themira putris (Gr); Chloropidae: Thaumatomyia grata (Gr); Agromyzidae: Melanogromyza aeneoventris (Gr)

Butterflies
Pieridae: Colias philodice (Gr), Pieris rapae (Gr)

Beetles
Carabidae: Lebia atriventris (Gr); Coccinellidae: Coccinella novemnotata (Gr), Coleomegilla maculata (Gr)

Plant Bugs
Miridae: Adelphocoris rapidus (Gr), Lygus lineolaris (Gr), Plagiognathus sp. (Gr), Proba distanti (Gr); Thyreocoridae: Corimelaena pulicarius (Gr)

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Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Apion dispar feeds on Anthemis cotula

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Paraperonospora leptosperma parasitises live leaf of Anthemis cotula

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Trupanea stellata feeds within capitulum of Anthemis cotula

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: March-September.
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Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Anthemis cotula

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anthemis cotula

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Anthemis cotula

Anthemis cotula, also known as stinking chamomile,[4] is a flowering annual plant with a noticeable and strong odor. The odor is often considered unpleasant, and it is from this that it gains the common epithet "stinking". It is initially native to Europe and North Africa. It has successfully migrated to North America, Southern Africa, Australia and New Zealand[5] where it can be found growing on waste ground, alongside roads, and in fields.[6] Anthemis cotula is considered a weed due to its propensity for invading cultivated areas.[5]

The name "cotula" is from a Greek word for "small cup", describing the shape of the flowers; it was assigned by Carolus Linnaeus in his work Species Plantarum in 1753.[7]

Anthemis cotula is also known by a wide variety of other names, including mather, dog- or hog's-fennel, dog-finkle, dog-daisy, pig-sty-daisy, chigger-weed,[6] mayweed, maroute, Maruta cotula, Cotula Maruta foetida, Manzanilla loca, wild chamomile, Camomille puante. Foetid Chamomile or Mayweed, maithes, maithen, mathor [8] mayweed chamomile, camomille des chiens, camomille puante, stinkende Hundskamille, camomila-de-cachorro, macéla-fétida, and manzanilla hedionda.

Description[edit]

The "stinking chamomile" Anthemis cotula is so-named for its resemblance to the true chamomile plant, Anthemis nobilis; both have branching upright stems each topped by a single large flower head, although the "stinking chamomile" is distinguished by lacking the membraneous scales underneath the flowers of the true chamomile, as well as by its characteristic strong odor. The leaves of Anthemis cotula have a similar appearance to those of the fennel plant (Foeniculum vulgare), from which the name "Dog's Fennel" is derived.[9]

Anthemis cotula is an annual glandular plant with a harsh taste and an acrid smell. Its height varies from 12 inches (28 centimeters) to 24 inches (56 centimeters).[6]

Leaves
The leaves of the plant sometimes have very fine and soft hairs on the upper surface, although the plant is mostly hairless. There is no leaf stalk; leaves grow immediately from the stems. The leaves are pinnate in shape, with many extremely thin lobes, and can be around 1 or 2 inches long (2.5 to 5 centimeters).[6]
Flowers
Each stem is topped by a single flower head which is usually around 1 inch (2.34 centimeters) in diameter. The flower head is encompassed by between 10 and 18 white ray florets, each with a three-toothed shape; the florets tend to curve downwards around the edges and may occasionally have pistils, although these do not produce fruit. Beneath the flower proper, oval bracts of the plant form an involucre, with soft hairs on each; further bracts are bristled and sit at right angles to the flowers.[6]
Fruits
The fruits are achenes (with no pappus). They are wrinkled, ribbed with ten ridges, and have small glandular bumps across the surface.

Toxicity[edit]

Anthemis cotula is regarded as toxic to dogs, cats, horses, and guinea pigs. Clinical signs include contact dermatitis, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, allergic reactions. Long term use can lead to bleeding tendencies.[10]

Distribution[edit]

Native
Palearctic
Macaronesia: Azores, Canary Islands, Madeira Islands
Northern Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia
Western Asia: Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey
Caucasus: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, North Caucasus, Dagestan
Northern Europe: Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, England
Middle Europe: Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland
East Europe: Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Krym
Southeastern Europe: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Crete, Italy, Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Sardinia, Serbia, Sicily, Slovenia
Southwestern Europe: France Corsica, Portugal, Spain, Baleares

Source: GRIN[5]

References[edit]

Illustration from Britton & Brown 1913.
  1. ^ International Organization for Plant Information (IOPI). "Plant Name Search Results" (HTML). International Plant Names Index. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  2. ^ Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem. "Details for: Anthemis cotula". Euro+Med PlantBase. Freie Universität Berlin. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  3. ^ UniProt. "Anthemis cotula" (HTML). Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  4. ^ Britten, James; Robert Holland (1886). "Page 84". A Dictionary of English Plant-names. For the English Dialect Society, Trübner & Ludgate Hill. p. 618 pages. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  5. ^ a b c Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (1992-05-02). "Taxon: Anthemis cotula L.". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Britton, Nathaniel Lord; Addison Brown (1913). "BORAGE FAMILY". An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions From Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern Boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean Westward to the 102d Meridian. Volume III Gentianaceae to Compositae -- Gentian to Thistle (Second Edition -- Revised and Enlarged ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  7. ^ Dunglison, Robley; Richard James Dunglison (1876). "Section 22 Costohyoideus thru Cough". A Dictionary of Medical Science; Containing a Concise Explanation of the Various Subjects and Terms of Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Hygiene, Therapeutics, Medical Chemistry, Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Surgery, Obstetrics, Medical Jurisprudence, and Dentistry; Notices of Climate, and of Mineral Waters; Formulae for Officinal, Empirical, and Dietetic Preparations; with the Accentuation and Etymology of the Terms, and the French and Other Synonyms. Churchill. p. 1131 pages. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  8. ^ M. Grieve (1931). "Mayweed". A Modern Herbal. © Copyright Protected 1995-2008 Botanical.com. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  9. ^ M. Grieve (1931). "Chamomile Stinking". A Modern Herbal. © Copyright Protected 1995-2008 Botanical.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  10. ^ ASPCA - Pet Care - Mayweed
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Notes

Comments

Anthemis cotula is a weed throughout North America.
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Comments

Occurs on damp, alluvial soils or roadside depressions probably as an escape from cultivation and sandy clay soils in the low valleys surrounded by high hills.
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