Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

This is the earliest blooming goldenrod. It is an attractive, slender plant with a delicate appearance. Aside from its early bloom, Early Goldenrod can be distinguished from other goldenrods by the near or complete absence of hair on the stems and leaves (unlike Solidago nemoralis), the presence of winged leaflets above the leaf axils on the central stem (unlike Solidago canadensis), and an inflorescence that flares outward (rather than upward, like Solidago speciosa). No other goldenrod that occurs on prairies in Illinois has this combination of features. Return
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Early Goldenrod is widely distributed throughout Illinois, occurring in most counties (see Distribution Map). It is occasional to locally common. Early Goldenrod occurs in mesic to slightly dry black soil prairies, sand prairies, gravel prairies, oak savannas, thickets, open areas of rocky upland woods, sunny waste areas, and abandoned fields. It is the earliest goldenrod to bloom in these habitats in Illinois. Faunal Associations
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants 30–120 cm; caudices branching, sometimes with elongate rhizomes forming new rosettes. Stems 1–10+ , erect, glabrous, sometimes sparsely hairy in arrays; usually with fascicles of small leaves in axils of distal leaves. Leaves: basal and proximal cauline tapering gradually to winged petioles, blades oblanceolate to ovate, 100–300 × 20–70 mm, usually multiple lateral nerves pronounced, margins sharply serrate, ciliate, faces glabrous; mid to distal cauline sessile, blades linear-lanceolate, 30–50 × 8–11 mm, reduced distally, margins entire or finely serrate. Heads 60–450 , secund, in paniculiform arrays, openly secund-pyramidal with proximal branches spreading-recurved, or as broad as long with proximal branches widely ascending, recurved (elm-tree shaped). Peduncles 1.5–6 mm, glabrous or sparsely strigillose; bracteoles 0–2, linear. Involucres narrowly campanulate, 3–4 mm. Phyllaries in 3–4 series, strongly unequal, outer ovate, acute, inner lanceolate, obtuse. Ray florets 7–12; laminae 2–2.5 × 0.2–0.5 mm. Disc florets 8–15; corollas 2.5–3 mm, lobes 0.5–0.8 mm. Cypselae 0.9–1.5 mm, sparsely strigose; pappi 2.5–3.5 mm. 2n = 18.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Solidago arguta Aiton var. juncea (Aiton) Torrey & A. Gray; S. arguta var. scabrella Torrey & A. Gray; S. juncea var. neobohemica Fernald; S. juncea var. ramosa Porter & Britton; S. juncea var. scabrella (Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray
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Type Information

Isotype for Solidago juncea var. neobohemica Fernald
Catalog Number: US 1971643
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. L. Fernald & H. E. Moore
Year Collected: 1946
Locality: New Bohemia., Prince George, Virginia, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Fernald, M. L. 1947. Rhodora. 49: 188.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Early Goldenrod is widely distributed throughout Illinois, occurring in most counties (see Distribution Map). It is occasional to locally common. Early Goldenrod occurs in mesic to slightly dry black soil prairies, sand prairies, gravel prairies, oak savannas, thickets, open areas of rocky upland woods, sunny waste areas, and abandoned fields. It is the earliest goldenrod to bloom in these habitats in Illinois. Faunal Associations
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Early Goldenrod in Illinois

Solidago juncea (Early Goldenrod)
(bees collect pollen or suck nectar; flies and beetles suck nectar or feed on pollen; other insects suck nectar; most observations are from Graenicher, otherwise they are from Evans as indicated below)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus centralis sn cp, Bombus ternarius sn, Bombus vagans sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla (Ev); Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus minimus sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes rustica sn cp, Melissodes trinodis sn cp; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada articulata sn, Nomada denticulata sn; Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys funeraria sn, Coelioxys moesta sn, Coelioxys octodentata sn; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile centuncularis sn cp, Megachile latimanus sn (Gr, Ev), Megachile mendica (Ev); Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis pilosifrons sn;

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn, Augochlorella striata sn, Augochloropsis metallica metallica (Ev), Halictus confusus sn cp (Ev, Gr), Halictus ligatus sn cp, Halictus rubicunda sn cp (Ev, Gr), Halictus sp. (Lasioglossum sp.) sn, Lasioglossum albipennis sn, Lasioglossum cinctipes sn, Lasioglossum coriaceus (Ev), Lasioglossum cressonii sn cp, Lasioglossum pectoralis (Ev), Lasioglossum versatus sn cp; Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes clematidis sn, Sphecodes cressonii sn, Sphecodes dichroa sn, Sphecodes minor sn; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes eulophi sn, Colletes simulans armata sn olg (Ev, Gr); Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis (Ev), Hylaeus mesillae sn, Hylaeus modestus modestus sn; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena hirticincta sn olg, Andrena nubecula sn cp olg, Andrena peckhami sn cp; Melittidae: Macropis nuda sn

Wasps
Sphecidae (Astatinae): Astata unicolor; Sphecidae (Bembecinae): Bembix americana, Bicyrtes ventralis, Synnevrus aequalis; Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Ectemnius continuus, Ectemnius decemmaculatus, Ectemnius dives, Ectemnius lapidarius, Ectemnius maculosus, Ectemnius trifasciatus, Lestica confluentus, Lestica producticollis, Oxybelus emarginatus, Oxybelus uniglumis; Sphecidae (Larrinae): Tachysphex pompiliformis, Tachytes pepticus; Sphecidae (Pemphredoninae): Mimesa cressonii; Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Aphilanthops frigidus, Cerceris clypeata, Cerceris nigrescens, Philanthus bilunatus, Philanthus gibbosus, Philanthus ventilabris; Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi, Ammophila procera, Isodontia philadelphica, Prionyx atrata; Vespidae: Dolichovespula arenaria, Polistes fuscata; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Ancistrocerus adiabatus, Ancistrocerus antilope, Eumenes fraterna, Euodynerus foraminatus, Parancistrocerus vagus, Symmorphus cristatus; Pompilidae: Anoplius marginatus, Ceropales fulvipes, Ceropales maculata, Entypus unifasciatus, Episyron biguttatus, Poecilopompilus interrupta; Tiphiidae: Myzinum quinquecincta; Chrysididae: Chrysura cobaltina; Leucospididae: Leucospis affinis; Chalcididae: Conura torvina; Perilampidae: Perilampus hyalinus; Braconidae: Agathis semirubra, Bracon sp., Bracon mellitor, Chelonus fissus

Flies
Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa decora, Hemipenthes sinuosa, Poecilanthrax halcyon, Systoechus vulgaris, Villa alternata; Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua, Eristalis anthophorina, Eristalis arbustorum, Eristalis dimidiatus, Eristalis flavipes, Eristalis tenax, Eristalis transversus, Eupeodes americanus, Orthonevra nitida, Orthonevra pictipennis, Paragus tibialis, Platycheirus obscurus, Sphaerophoria contiqua, Spilomyia fusca, Spilomyia longicornis, Syritta pipiens, Syrphus ribesii, Toxomerus geminatus, Toxomerus marginatus, Tropidia quadrata; Tipulidae: Limonia canadensis; Culicidae: Aedes vexans sn; Sciaridae: Sciara exigua; Stratiomyidae: Hedriodiscus binotata, Odontomyia virgo, Stratiomys meigenii, Stratiomys normula; Tephritidae: Euaresta bella; Chloropidae: Thaumatomyia glabra; Anthomyiidae: Anthomyia sp., Calythea pratincola, Delia platura, Phorbia sp.; Calliphoridae: Lucilia illustris, Phormia regina, Pollenia rudis; Muscidae: Graphomya maculata, Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans; Sarcophagidae: Helicobia rapax, Sarcophaga sp., Sarcophaga sarracenioides, Sphixapata trilineata; Tachinidae: Archytas analis, Chetogena claripennis, Cylindromyia dosiades, Gymnoclytia immaculata, Gymnosoma fuliginosum, Microphthalma disjuncta, Myiopharus doryphorae, Phyllomya cremides, Strongygaster triangulifera, Tachina algens, Tachinomyia panaetius

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Polygonia comma, Speyeria cybele, Vanessa atalanta, Vanessa virginiensis; Lycaenidae: Satyrium sp.

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Poanes zabulon

Moths
Gelechiidae: Gelechia sp.; Noctuidae: Anagrapha falcifera

Beetles
Carabidae: Euphorticus pubescens; Cerambycidae: Batyle suturale, Typocerus vulutina; Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica undecimpunctata; Cleridae: Trichodes apivorus; Coccinellidae: Coccinella novemnotata; Meloidae: Epicauta pensylvanica; Melyridae: Attalus terminalis; Mordellidae: Hoshihananomia octopunctata, Mordella melaena, Mordellistena comata

Plant Bugs
Alydidae: Megalotomus quinquespinosus; Miridae: Lygus lineolaris, Metriorrhynchomiris dislocatus; Pentatomidae: Euschistus variolaria; Thyreocoridae: Corimelaena lateralis, Corimelaena pulicarius

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Golovinomyces orontii parasitises live Solidago juncea

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Solidago juncea

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Solidago juncea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Solidago juncea

Solidago juncea (Early goldenrod, Plume golden-rod, Yellow top) is an herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae native to Canada and the United States. It is often grown as a wildflower.

References[edit]

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Notes

Comments

Several varieties of Solidago juncea have been described; they do not appear to warrant recognition, each grading into the other.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Solidago juncea is treated by Kartesz (1999) as a species without infraspecific taxa. LEM 31Dec00.

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