Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This perennial plant is about 1½–3' tall and unbranched, except for the flowering stalks near the apex. Missouri Goldenrod produces both fertile (flowering) and sterile (non-flowering) shoots. The central stem is light green to dark red, terete (round in circumference), and glabrous; the lower portion of this stem may become slightly woody with age. Along the entire length of this stem, there are alternate leaves that become smaller as they ascend. These leaves are up to 5" long and ¾" across; they are more or less elliptic in shape and serrated along their middle to outer margins. Each leaf usually has 3 prominent veins (a central vein & 2 lateral veins); the lateral veins are parallel with the central vein along much of its length. However, on many upper leaves only the central vein is prominent. The tips of the leaves are acute, while their bases taper gradually into petioles. Most of these petioles are 3 mm. or less in length, although the lowest leaves have longer petioles that are partially winged. From the axils of the middle to upper leaves, short tufts of small secondary leaves may develop. The upper leaf surface is medium green and glabrous, while the lower leaf surface is light green and glabrous. A panicle of flowerheads up to 6" long and 4" across terminates the central stem of each fertile shoot. This panicle is pyramidal, obpyramidal, or rhomboid in outline; its branches are widely spreading to ascending and straight to somewhat recurved. These branches divide into short secondary branches and peduncles; the latter terminate in small flowerheads. The branches and peduncles are light green to nearly white and either glabrous or pubescent. Intermingled among these branches, there are small leafy bracts up to 1½" long and ¼" (6 mm.) across. Each flowerhead is about 3 mm. across and 5 mm. long; it consists of several disk florets that are surrounded by 6-12 ray florets. The tiny corollas of these florets are yellow to golden yellow; they are tubular in shape with 5 spreading to ascending lobes along their upper rims. The petaloid rays of the flowerheads are bright yellow, oblong in shape, and widely spreading. Surrounding the base of each flowerhead, there are phyllaries (floral bracts) in several overlapping series; they are about 2 mm. long, light green to light yellow, oblong in shape, glabrous, and appressed together. The blooming period usually occurs from mid-summer to late summer, lasting about 3 weeks for a colony of plants. Afterwards, the florets are replaced by achenes with small tufts of white hair at their apices. These achenes are about 2 mm. long and bullet-shaped; they are distributed by the wind. The root system is mostly fibrous and rhizomatous; an older plant may produce a small caudex. Missouri Goldenrod reproduces by clonal offsets from the rhizomes and by reseeding itself. It often forms colonies that contain both fertile and infertile shoots.
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Range and Habitat in Illinois

Missouri Goldenrod occurs occasionally in most areas of Illinois (see Distribution Map), where it is native. Habitats include black soil prairies, clay prairies, dolomite prairies, hill prairies, limestone glades, prairie remnants along railroads, and thickets in upland areas. In Illinois, this goldenrod has high fidelity to prairies that can vary in their quality. Because of the destruction of prairie habitat, it is less common within the state than in the past. Faunal Associations
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Occurrence in North America

     AZ  AR  CO  ID  IL  IN  IA  KS  KY  MI
     MN  MO  MT  NE  NM  ND  OK  OR  SD  TN
     TX  UT  WA  WI  WY  AB  BC  MB  ON  SK

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More info for the term: relict

Prairie goldenrod is found from Washington, Oregon, and British Columbia
[14] east to southern Ontario; south to Tennessee [46] and Arkansas
[18]; and west to Arizona [46].  It is found elsewhere as a relict or as
a weed [19].

Solidago missouriensis var. missouriensis is found east of the Cascades,
as is S. m. var. extraria [20].  Solidago missouriensis var.
fasciculata is of the Great Plains, occasionally found as far west as
Grand Coulee, Washington [19,20]; it is also found in the northeastern
U.S. and adjacent Canada [18].  Solidago missouriensis var. tolmieana is
found west of the Cascades [19,20].
  • 14.  Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections        supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 19.  Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.        Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p.  [1603]
  • 20.  Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific        Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p.  [1168]
  • 18.  Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of        northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New        York Botanical Garden. 910 p.  [20329]
  • 46.  Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry        C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo,        UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p.  [2944]

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

    1  Northern Pacific Border
    2  Cascade Mountains
    5  Columbia Plateau
    8  Northern Rocky Mountains
    9  Middle Rocky Mountains
   10  Wyoming Basin
   11  Southern Rocky Mountains
   12  Colorado Plateau
   13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont
   14  Great Plains
   15  Black Hills Uplift
   16  Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: achene, caudex, forb, warm-season

Prairie goldenrod is a warm-season [22] native perennial forb [12,18].
The leaves are somewhat rigid, the basal leaves being largest, petioled
[41], and often early-deciduous.  The cauline leaves are progressively
reduced upward.  Leaves are 0.6 to 4.9 inches (1.5-12.5 cm) long [5].
Stems are 4 to 39 inches (0.1-1.0 m) tall [5,14], arising singly or
clustered.  The inflorescence is a rather rounded, compact, branched
terminal panicle [19] composed of small, congested flowerheads [44].
Ray flowers are 0.16 to 0.2 inches (4-5 mm) long.  Disk flowers are 0.12
to 0.16 inches (3-4 mm) long [14].  The fruit is a small achene [5]; the
pappus consists of numerous bristles [19].  Plants arise from creeping
cordlike rhizomes [14] or a spreading caudex [19], or sometimes both
[18].  Roots tend to be rather superficial [44], but can reach 6.6 feet
(2 m) deep [5].
  • 14.  Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections        supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 19.  Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.        Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p.  [1603]
  • 5.  Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The        Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p.  [3801]
  • 12.  Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information        network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and        Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior,        Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p.  [806]
  • 18.  Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of        northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New        York Botanical Garden. 910 p.  [20329]
  • 22.  Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota        grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota        State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p.  [18501]
  • 41.  Vance, F. R.; Jowsey, J. R.; McLean, J. S. 1984. Wildflowers of the        Northern Great Plains. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.        336 p.  [22199]
  • 44.  Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful        in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington,        DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p.        [4837]

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Description

Plants (10–)30–80 cm; rhizomes short to long. Stems 1–50+, erect, glabrous or sometimes sparsely strigose in arrays; fascicles of small lateral branch leaves often present in axils. Leaves: proximal cauline tapering to long, winged petioles, blades oblanceolate to linear-oblanceolate, 50–100(–200) (including petiole) × (5–)10–20(–30) mm, margins entire to serrulate, usually 3-nerved (2 larger lateral nerves), apices acute, mucronate to acuminate and somewhat spinulose, glabrous; mid to distal cauline sessile, blades lanceolate to linear, 40–60 × (2–)4–14 mm, rapidly reduced distally, margins entire, ciliate, faces glabrous. Heads 10–210 in paniculiform arrays, broadly secund-pyramidal or more rhombic to transversely rhombic, (1.5–)3–12(–20) × (1.5–)3–12 cm; branches glabrous with secund heads spreading and arching, sometimes ascending with non-secund heads. Peduncles 1.4–5 mm, glabrous or sparsely strigose; bracteoles 0–3+ , linear to lanceolate. Involucres narrowly to broadly campanulate, 2.5–4.5 mm. Phyllaries in 3–4 series, strongly unequal, margins ciliate-fimbriate, especially apically; outer ovate to lanceolate, acute to rounded, inner linear-ovate to oblong or linear-lanceolate, obtuse to rounded. Ray florets 5–14; laminae 1.5–2(–4) × 0.2–0.5(–0.75) mm. Disc florets (6–)8–20; corollas (2–)3–4 mm, lobes 0.4–1 mm. Cypselae (obconic) 1–2 mm, glabrous or sparsely strigose; pappi 2.5–3 mm. 2n = 18, 36.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Aster marshallii (Rothrock) Kuntze; A. missouriensis (Nuttall) Kuntze; A. tolmieanus (A. Gray) Kuntze; Doria concinna (A. Nelson) Lunell; D. glaberrima (M. Martens) Lunell; D. glaberrima var. montana (A. Gray) Lunell; Solidago concinna A. Nelson; S. duriuscula Greene; S. glaberrima M. Martens; S. glaberrima var. montana (A. Gray) Lunell; S. glaberrima var. moritura (E. S. Steele) E. J. Palmer & Steyermark; S. glaucophylla Rydberg; S. hapemaniana Rydberg; S. marshallii Rothrock; S. missouriensis var. extraria A. Gray; S. missouriensis var. fasciculata Holzinger; S. missouriensis var. glaberrima (M. Martens) Rosendahl & Cronquist; S. missouriensis var. montana A. Gray; S. missouriensis var. tenuissima (Wooton & Standley) C. E. S. Taylor & R. J. Taylor ; S. missouriensis var. tolmieana (A. Gray) Cronquist; S. moritura E. S. Steele; S. tenuissima Wooton & Standley; S. tolmieana A. Gray
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Type Information

Holotype for Solidago missouriensis var. fasciculata Holz.
Catalog Number: US 61863
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. A. Carleton
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Cherokee Outlet., Oklahoma, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Holzinger, J. M. 1892. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 1: 208.
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Holotype for Solidago tenuissima Wooton & Standl.
Catalog Number: US 591665
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. A. Mearns
Year Collected: 1892
Locality: Guadalupe Canyon near Cloverdale., New Mexico, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Wooton, E. O. & Standley, P. C. 1913. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 16: 182.
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Holotype for Solidago moritura E.S. Steele
Catalog Number: US 648380
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. S. Steele
Year Collected: 1910
Locality: Urbana., Champaign, Illinois, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Steele, E. S. 1911. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 13: 370.
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Type collection for Solidago duriuscula Greene
Catalog Number: US 141745
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): L. F. Ward
Year Collected: 1881
Locality: Illinois prairie region., Nebraska, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Greene, E. L. 1909. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7: 196.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Missouri Goldenrod occurs occasionally in most areas of Illinois (see Distribution Map), where it is native. Habitats include black soil prairies, clay prairies, dolomite prairies, hill prairies, limestone glades, prairie remnants along railroads, and thickets in upland areas. In Illinois, this goldenrod has high fidelity to prairies that can vary in their quality. Because of the destruction of prairie habitat, it is less common within the state than in the past. Faunal Associations
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Habitat characteristics

Prairie goldenrod inhabits rather dry, open places on the slopes of
valleys and on plains, and reaches moderately high elevations in
mountains [20].  It is also found in sparsely wooded areas, on grassy
roadsides [5,18], on rocky slopes [14], and in open communities where
sod is broken along railroads, ditches, and fences [44].

Prairie goldenrod growth is poor on gravel and dense clay, fair on sand
and clay, and good on sandy to clayey loam.  It grows poorly on strongly
acidic and saline soils [12], though it shows tolerance of weakly acidic
to moderately basic and weakly saline soils [44].  Its optimum soil
depth is 10 to 20 inches (25-51 cm) [12].

Prairie goldenrod occurs at the following elevations [12]:

                   Elevation (feet)     Elevation (m)

        CO          3,700-10,000         1,128-3,048
        MT          3,200-9,000            975-2,743
        UT          4,200-8,600          1,280-2,621
        WY          3,700-10,600         1,128-3,231
  • 14.  Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections        supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 20.  Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific        Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p.  [1168]
  • 5.  Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The        Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p.  [3801]
  • 12.  Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information        network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and        Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior,        Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p.  [806]
  • 18.  Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of        northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New        York Botanical Garden. 910 p.  [20329]
  • 44.  Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful        in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington,        DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p.        [4837]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the term: fern

Prairie goldenrod is widespread throughout the Great Plains.  It is not
listed as an indicator species in any plant community.  It occurs with a
variety of associated species, depending on geographic location and site
conditions.

Associates of prairie goldenrod in remnant upland tallgrass prairie in
west-central Missouri include eastern red-cedar (Juniperus virginiana),
dewberry (Rubus flagellaris), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), buck
brush (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus), leadplant (Amorpha canescens), and
wild snowball (Ceanothus americanus) [21].

Associates of prairie goldenrod in the sandhills tallgrass prairie of
southeastern North Dakota include sandhill bluestem (Andropogon hallii),
Penn sedge (Carex pennsylvanica), perennial ragweed (Ambrosia
psilostachya), white sage (Artemisia ludoviciana), narrow-leaved puccoon
(Lithospermum incisum), blazing star (Liatris punctata), and prairie
rose (Rosa arkansana) [47].

Associates of prairie goldenrod on benchlands in the Cypress Hills of
southeastern Alberta include shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa),
yarrow (Achillea lanulosa), starry chickweed (Cerastium arvense),
northern bedstraw (Galium boreale), prairiesmoke avens (Geum triflorum),
kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), American pasqueflower (Anemone
patens), prairie thermopsis (Thermopsis rhombifolia), and fleabane
(Erigeron spp.) [11].

Associates of prairie goldenrod in fluvial sand and gravel deposits of
the riparian zone in northwestern Montana include clover (Trifolium
spp.), dandelion (Taraxacum spp.), Virginia strawberry (Fragaria
virginiana), red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), kinnikinnick, and
russet buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) [27].

Associates of prairie goldenrod in the northern Wisconsin pine barrens
include scattered jack pine (Pinus banksiana), bur oak (Quercus
macrocarpa), and northern pin oak (Quercus ellipsoidalis) as well as
grasses (Poaceae), bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), sweet fern
(Myrica asplenifolia), and lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) [43].
  • 11.  Coupland, Robert T. 1961. A reconsideration of grassland classification        in the northern Great Plains of North America. Journal of Ecology. 49:        135-167.  [12588]
  • 21.  Hurd, Richard M.; Christisen, Donald M. 1975. Ecology study of Friendly        Prairie, Missouri. In: Wali, Mohan K., ed. Prairie: a multiple view.        Grand Forks, ND: University of North Dakota Press: 89-102.  [4432]
  • 27.  Mace, Richard D.; Bissell, Gael N. 1986. Grizzly bear food resources in        the flood plains and avalanche chutes of the Bob Marshall Wilderness,        Montana. In: Contreras, Glen P.; Evans, Keith E., compilers.        Proceedings--grizzly bear habitat symposium; 1985 April 30 - May 2;        Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-207. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 78-91.        [10812]
  • 43.  Vogl, Richard J. 1971. Fire and the northern Wisconsin pine barrens. In:        Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers Fire ecology conference; 1970 August        20-21; New Brunsick, Canada. No. 10. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers        Research Station: 175-209.  [2432]
  • 47.  Whitman, W. C., Wali, M. K. 1975. Grasslands of North Dakota. In: Wali,        Mohan K., ed. Prairie: a multiple view. Grand Forks, ND: University of        North Dakota Press: 53-74.  [4430]

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Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

     1  Jack pine
    13  Black spruce - tamarack
    14  Northern pin oak
    15  Red pine
    16  Aspen
    39  Black ash - American elm - red maple
    42  Bur oak
    62  Silver maple - American elm
    63  Cottonwood
    67  Mohrs (shin) oak
   201  White spruce
   210  Interior Douglas-fir
   220  Rocky Mountain juniper
   237  Interior ponderosa pine
   238  Western juniper

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Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

   K011  Western ponderosa forest
   K012  Douglas-fir forest
   K015  Western spruce - fir forest
   K016  Eastern ponderosa forest
   K017  Black Hills pine forest
   K018  Pine - Douglas-fir forest
   K019  Arizona pine forest
   K020  Spruce - fir - Douglas-fir forest
   K021  Southwestern spruce - fir forest
   K023  Juniper - pinyon woodland
   K024  Juniper steppe woodland
   K031  Oak - juniper woodlands
   K037  Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub
   K038  Great Basin sagebrush
   K040  Saltbush - greasewood
   K050  Fescue - wheatgrass
   K051  Wheatgrass - bluegrass
   K055  Sagebrush steppe
   K056  Wheatgrass - needlegrass shrubsteppe
   K057  Galleta - three-awn shrubsteppe
   K058  Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe
   K063  Foothills prairie
   K064  Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass
   K065  Grama - buffalograss
   K066  Wheatgrass - needlegrass
   K067  Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass
   K068  Wheatgrass - grama - buffalograss
   K070  Sandsage - bluestem prairie
   K071  Shinnery
   K074  Bluestem prairie
   K075  Nebraska Sandhills prairie
   K081  Oak savanna
   K082  Mosaic of K074 and K100
   K093  Great Lakes spruce - fir forest
   K094  Conifer bog
   K095  Great Lakes pine forest
   K098  Northern floodplain forest
   K100  Oak - hickory forest
   K106  Northern hardwoods
   K107  Northern hardwoods - fir forest

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Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

   FRES10  White - red - jack pine
   FRES11  Spruce - fir
   FRES15  Oak - hickory
   FRES17  Elm - ash - cottonwood
   FRES19  Aspen - birch
   FRES20  Douglas-fir
   FRES21  Ponderosa pine
   FRES23  Fir - spruce
   FRES29  Sagebrush
   FRES38  Plains grasslands
   FRES39  Prairie
   FRES40  Desert grasslands

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Missouri Goldenrod in Illinois

Solidago missouriensis (Missouri Goldenrod)
(Bees collect pollen or suck nectar; some beetles feed on pollen & are non-pollinating, while others suck nectar; other insects suck nectar; observations are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn; Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus bifasciatus sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes boltoniae sn cp, Svastra obliqua obliqua sn cp fq; Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys octodentata sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella aurata sn, Halictus confusus sn, Halictus ligatus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum albipennis sn cp, Lasioglossum imitatus sn cp, Lasioglossum pectoralis sn cp, Lasioglossum tegularis sn cp, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp fq; Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes stygius sn; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus mesillae sn fq

Wasps
Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Ectemnius dilectus, Lestica confluentus, Oxybelus emarginatus, Oxybelus mexicanus, Oxybelus uniglumis; Sphecidae (Larrinae): Ancistromma distincta, Solierella inerme; Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris clypeata, Cerceris compacta, Cerceris finitima, Eucerceris zonata, Philanthus ventilabris; Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi, Ammophila nigricans, Ammophila pictipennis, Prionyx atrata, Sphex ichneumonea, Sphex pensylvanica; Vespidae: Polistes fuscata; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Eumenes fraterna, Euodynerus annulatus fq, Parancistrocerus vagus, Stenodynerus anormis, Stenodynerus histrionalis; Sapygidae: Sapyga interrupta; Tiphiidae: Myzinum quinquecincta fq; Scoliidae: Scolia bicincta fq; Chrysididae: Hedychrum wiltii fq; Perilampidae: Perilampus hyalinus; Ichneumonidae: Ceratogastra ornata fq; Braconidae: Agathis simillimus

Flies
Syrphidae: Syritta pipiens sn, Toxomerus marginatus sn; Empidae: Empis clausa sn; Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa fascipennis sn fq; Conopidae: Zodion obliquefasciatum sn; Tachinidae: Gymnoclytia occidua sn, Gymnosoma fuliginosum sn, Phasia aeneoventris sn, Phorantha magna sn (Rb, MS), Plagiomima spinosula sn, Siphoplagia flaccidirostris sn (Robertson, MS); Sarcophagidae: Blaesoxipha hunteri sn, Gymnoprosopa polita sn, Helicobia rapax sn, Senotainia rubriventris sn, Sphixapata trilineata sn fq

Beetles
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus sn; Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica undecimpunctata fp np; Meloidae: Epicauta pensylvanica fp np fq; Rhipiphoridae: Rhipiphorus fasciata lgf

Plant Bugs
Lygaeidae: Lygaeus turcicus

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Golovinomyces orontii parasitises live Solidago missouriensis

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General Ecology

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: frequency, prescribed fire, restoration

Several studies report that fire had no effect or a negative effect on
prairie goldenrod.

On old fields and unplowed prairie in southeastern North Dakota, prairie
goldenrod occurred in small amounts; at no site was canopy coverage
greater than 1.50 percent.  On three old fields burned in late spring,
1973, prairie goldenrod occurred on control but not on burned sites by
August, 1973.  On two unplowed prairie sites, prairie goldenrod occurred
on burned and unburned plots, with no significant difference between
treatments [29].

A study of logged black spruce (Picea mariana) forests on lowland sites
in southeastern Manitoba harvested during the winter of 1964-65 and
burned in May, 1967, showed that prairie goldenrod invaded after
harvesting on both burned and unburned sites [10].

Response to burning on disturbed soils of the Konza Prairie was
variable.  Prairie goldenrod was present on frequently burned prairie
vole burrow systems and adjacent prairie.  It occurred on unburned
badger den sites but not on burned sites.  It occurred on burned pocket
gopher mounds, but not on unburned mounds [16].

Prairie goldenrod was listed as a decreaser in response to fire in
northeastern Wisconsin.  In 1959 and 1960, prairie goldenrod had an
average frequency of 31.2 percent in undisturbed bracken fern-grassland
sites; in sites subjected to prescribed fires average frequency was 19.7
percent [43].

The Research Project Summary Vegetation response to restoration treatments
in ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests of western Montana
provides information
on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species
including prairie goldenrod.
  • 10.  Chrosciewicz, Z. 1976. Burning for black spruce regeneration on a        lowland cutover site in southeastern Manitoba. Canadian Journal of        Forest Research. 6(2): 179-186.  [7280]
  • 16.  Gibson, David J. 1989. Effects of animal disturbance on tallgrass        prairie vegetation. American Midland Naturalist. 121: 144-154.  [6641]
  • 29.  Olson, Wendell W. 1975. Effects of controlled burning on grassland        within the Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. Fargo, ND: North Dakota        University of Agriculture and Applied Science. 137 p. Thesis.  [15252]
  • 43.  Vogl, Richard J. 1971. Fire and the northern Wisconsin pine barrens. In:        Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers Fire ecology conference; 1970 August        20-21; New Brunsick, Canada. No. 10. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers        Research Station: 175-209.  [2432]

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Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: cover, forb, frequency, prescribed fire, wildfire

Many reports of burning in communities that contain prairie goldenrod
show that frequency, cover, or flowering are enhanced after burning.  On
some sites prairie goldenrod response is variable or negative (see
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE).  Prairie goldenrod is
listed as tolerant of fire in the tallgrass prairie of the Central Great
Plains, even though it sometimes declines following fire.  It is listed
as increasing in the Canadian Great Plains after both spring and fall
fires [49].

In remnant tallgrass prairie in central Missouri burned on a 4-year
rotation, prairie goldenrod was one of the most common elements in the
flora [34].

In trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) parkland of east-central
Alberta, prairie goldenrod was the forb which increased the most under
annual early spring burning.  Parts of the grassland had been burned
repeatedly in April for at least 24 years.  Frequency of prairie
goldenrod was 18 percent on unburned plots and 50 percent on burned
plots; canopy cover was 1.7 percent on unburned plots and 27 percent on
burned plots [3,4].

Prairie goldenrod in northern Wisconsin pine barrens showed a
statistically significant increase on burned compared to contiguous
unburned sites over all study areas [43].

Prairie goldenrod increased on rolling sands and choppy sands sites in
north-central Nebraska sand hills 2 to 3 months after an early May,
1965, wildfire [48].

In central Arizona prairie goldenrod percent frequency increased
slightly on burned sites following prescribed fires in 1970 and 1971
[31].

Prairie goldenrod showed stimulation of flowering on a nearly level
mesic site following prescribed fire May 2, 1972, in northwestern
Minnesota [32].
  • 3.  Anderson, Howard A. 1978. Annual burning and vegetation in the aspen        parkland of east central Alberta. In: Dube, D. E., compiler. Fire        ecology in resource management: Workshop proceedings; 1977 December 6-7;        [Location unknown]
  • 4.  Anderson, Howard G.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1980. Effects of annual burning        on grassland in the aspen parkland of east-central Alberta. Canadian        Journal of Botany. 58: 985-996.  [3499]
  • 31.  Pase, Charles P.; Knipe, O. D. 1977. Effect of winter burning on        herbaceous cover on a converted chaparral watershed. Journal of Range        Management. 30(5): 346-348.  [1828]
  • 32.  Pemble, R. H.; Van Amburg, G. L.; Mattson, Lyle. 1981. Intraspecific        variation in flowering activity following a spring burn on a        northwestern Minnesota prairie. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J.,        eds. The prairie peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings,        6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH.        Ohio Biological Survey: Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio        State University, College of Biological Sciences: 235-240.  [3435]
  • 34.  Rabinowitz, D. 1981. Buried viable seeds in a North American tall-grass        prairie: the resemblance of their abundance and composition to        dispersing seeds. Oikos. 36: 191-195.  [5581]
  • 43.  Vogl, Richard J. 1971. Fire and the northern Wisconsin pine barrens. In:        Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers Fire ecology conference; 1970 August        20-21; New Brunsick, Canada. No. 10. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers        Research Station: 175-209.  [2432]
  • 48.  Wolfe, Carl W. 1973. Effects of fire on a sandhills grassland        environment. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology        conference; 1972 June 8-9; Lubbock, TX. Number 12. Tallahassee, FL: Tall        Timbers Research Station: 241-255.  [8469]
  • 49.  Wright, Henry A.; Thompson, Rita. 1978. Fire effects. In: Fire        management: Prairie plant communities: Proceedings of a symposium and        workshop; 1978 April 25-28; Jamestown, ND. [Place of publication        unknown]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

Prairie goldenrod is probably top-killed by fire during the growing
season.  However, it has good survival from fire, especially on damper
sites and in the dormant state [44], due to persistent rhizomes and
caudex [14,19].
  • 14.  Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections        supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 19.  Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.        Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p.  [1603]
  • 44.  Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful        in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington,        DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p.        [4837]

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: caudex, rhizome, secondary colonizer

   Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil
   Caudex, growing points in soil
   Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
   Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

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Fire Ecology

More info for the term: caudex

Prairie goldenrod has good fire tolerance in the dormant state [44]; it
can reproduce by rhizomes or from a caudex [14,19].  Prairie goldenrod
produces numerous small, wind-dispersed seeds [5,19] which can establish
in the open, sunny conditions created by fire.  It may also be an
initial on-site colonizer, since its seeds are found in the seedbank
[34], but no information was available on seed tolerance of heat or
length of seed viability in the seedbank.
  • 14.  Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections        supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 19.  Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.        Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p.  [1603]
  • 5.  Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The        Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p.  [3801]
  • 34.  Rabinowitz, D. 1981. Buried viable seeds in a North American tall-grass        prairie: the resemblance of their abundance and composition to        dispersing seeds. Oikos. 36: 191-195.  [5581]
  • 44.  Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful        in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington,        DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p.        [4837]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: competition, mesic

Facultative Seral Species

Prairie goldenrod pioneers disturbed sites, but is also tolerant of
partial shade [44] and has been characterized as a mid-seral species in
northwestern Iowa [33].

During the long drought period of the 1930's in the Midwest, prairie
goldenrod colonized bare areas where grasses and other native plants had
died out [5].  By 1940, after the drought, prairie goldenrod patches had
thinned out and the plants were dwarfed by competition with grasses.  By
1943, prairie goldenrod was mostly or completely suppressed [45].

In the Konza Prairie, a tallgrass prairie preserve of northeastern
Kansas, prairie goldenrod occurred in trace amounts on disturbed soil of
badger dens and also on undisturbed nearby sites.  It also occurred on
pocket gopher mounds and on prairie vole burrow systems [16].

In southwestern Montana mining towns abandoned for between 45 and 77
years, prairie goldenrod occurred on some abandoned roads (high-intensity
disturbance), around old foundations of some buildings (moderate-intensity
disturbance), and on some control sites (no disturbance except grazing) [24].

In contrast to the above reports of prairie goldenrod as a pioneer
species, it occurred on mesic slopes of both undisturbed virgin prairie
and overgrazed prairie in northwestern Iowa, but not on the drier sites
of badger disturbances [33].
  • 5.  Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The        Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p.  [3801]
  • 16.  Gibson, David J. 1989. Effects of animal disturbance on tallgrass        prairie vegetation. American Midland Naturalist. 121: 144-154.  [6641]
  • 24.  Knapp, Paul A. 1991. The response of semi-arid vegetation assemblages        following the abandonment of mining towns in south-western Montana.        Journal of Arid Environments. 20: 205-222.  [14894]
  • 33.  Platt, William J. 1975. The colonization and formation of equilibrium        plant species associations on badger disturbances in a tall-grass        prairie. Ecological Monographs. 45: 285-305.  [6903]
  • 44.  Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful        in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington,        DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p.        [4837]
  • 45.  Weaver, J. E. 1968. Prairie plants and their environment: A fifty-year        study in the Midwest. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 276 p.        [17549]

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Regeneration Processes

Prairie goldenrod reproduces by seed and by vigorous rhizomes.  It can
form dense colonies in both uplands and lowlands [22].

Prairie goldenrod stores seeds in the seedbank.  In the flora of remnant
tallgrass prairie in central Missouri, prairie goldenrod was one of the
most common elements.  Prairie goldenrod seeds made up 7 percent of the
seedbank and 63 percent of the seed rain from June 1 to December 5, 1978
[34].

Germination rates of prairie goldenrod seeds from western North Dakota
were tested from January through May, 1978.  With wet cold storage the
highest germination rate (64%) was in January, but dropped to low levels
in other months.  With room temperature storage the highest germination
rate (47%) was in March.  With dry cold storage the highest germination
rate (45%) was in February [7].
  • 7.  Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1989. Promising native forbs for        seeding on mine spoils. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W.,        compilers. Reclamation, a global perspective: Proceedings of the        conference; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land        Conservation and Reclamation Council: 255-262.  [14354]
  • 22.  Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota        grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota        State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p.  [18501]
  • 34.  Rabinowitz, D. 1981. Buried viable seeds in a North American tall-grass        prairie: the resemblance of their abundance and composition to        dispersing seeds. Oikos. 36: 191-195.  [5581]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: geophyte, hemicryptophyte

   Hemicryptophyte
   Geophyte

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Life Form

More info for the term: forb

Forb

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: caudex

Prairie goldenrod resumes growth from rhizomes and/or the caudex in
spring to early summer.  Plants often shed basal leaves after flowering
begins.  Seeds mature about 6 weeks after flowers bloom.  If plants are
damaged they make variable regrowth in the summer until seed maturation
[44].

In southwestern North Dakota prairie goldenrod begins growth in
mid-April and obtains mature height by early July to mid-August,
depending on the year [17].

Prairie goldenrod flowering times are:

                  Begin         Peak           End
                Flowering     Flowering     Flowering

     CO         June          August        September  [12
     IL         August        ----          September  [28]
     KS         July          ----          October    [5]
     MO         July          ----          September  [21]
     MT         June          August        September  [12]
     ND         July          August        August     [9,17]
     SD         ----          July          ----       [22]
     UT         July          August        September  [12]
     WY         June          August        September  [12]
Great Plains    July          ----          October    [19]
  • 19.  Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.        Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p.  [1603]
  • 5.  Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The        Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p.  [3801]
  • 9.  Callow, J. Michael; Kantrud, Harold A.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 1992. First        flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth,        North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 24(2): 57-64.  [20450]
  • 12.  Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information        network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and        Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior,        Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p.  [806]
  • 17.  Goetz, Harold. 1963. Growth and development of native range plants in        the mixed grass prairie of western North Dakota. Fargo, ND: North Dakota        State University. 141 p. Thesis.  [5661]
  • 21.  Hurd, Richard M.; Christisen, Donald M. 1975. Ecology study of Friendly        Prairie, Missouri. In: Wali, Mohan K., ed. Prairie: a multiple view.        Grand Forks, ND: University of North Dakota Press: 89-102.  [4432]
  • 22.  Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota        grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota        State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p.  [18501]
  • 28.  Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. (Revised edition). Guide to the vascular        flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.        507 p.  [17383]
  • 44.  Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful        in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington,        DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p.        [4837]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Solidago missouriensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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Source: NatureServe

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: Solidago missouriensis var. tolmieana is reported to occur in prairies west of the Cascades in Washington and extreme northern Oregon (Hitchcock et al. 1955; Peck 1961; Kartesz 1999); this is a limited vegetation formation in the region (e.g., Franklin and Dyrness 1973).

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: TNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Source: NatureServe

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

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Source: NatureServe

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

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Source: NatureServe

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Management

Management considerations

More info for the terms: cover, density, rootstock

Prairie goldenrod shows weak competitiveness in dense grasslands, but in
more open cover shows moderate aggressiveness and ability to invade and
dominate.  Prairie goldenrod in shortgrass prairie of northwestern
Montana had higher density in quadrats with low spotted knapweed
(Centaurea maculosa) density than in those with high spotted knapweed
density [39].  In the Great Plains prairie goldenrod increased with
drought during the 1930's, and in some places became a major constituent
of the weedy flora in tallgrass prairie [45].  Prairie goldenrod is
generally reported to be an increaser with grazing [30,37], sometimes
becoming a nuisance [22].

Seeding often fails, so transplanting rootstock divisions or small
plants may be the only certain way of ensuring stand establishment [44].
However, prairie hay has been used successfully as a seed source and
mulch [36].  Grazing or mowing established populations about 1 month
before normal flowering may induce more flower buds to open and extend
flowering period.  In order to maximize seed production flowers should
be permitted to mature before any further defoliation occurs in the fall
[44].  Rodents and grasshoppers may endanger new seedlings of prairie
goldenrod.  Dodder (Cuscuta spp.), a plant which sometimes parasitizes
prairie goldenrod stands, can be a problem in humid regions [44].

Prairie goldenrod in northeastern Kansas native tallgrass prairie was
ingested by grasshoppers in relation to its availability, being neither
avoided nor sought after [25].
  • 22.  Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota        grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota        State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p.  [18501]
  • 30.  Parker, Karl G. 1975. Some important Utah range plants. Extension        Service Bulletin EC-383. Logan, UT: Utah State University. 174 p.        [9878]
  • 36.  Ries, R. E.; Hofmann, L. 1983. Number of seedlings established from        stored prairie hay. In: Brewer, Richard, ed. Proceedings, 8th North        American prairie conference; 1982 August 1-4; Kalamazoo, MI. Kalamazoo,        MI: Western Michigan University, Department of Biology: 3-4.  [3112]
  • 37.  Risser, P. G.; Birney, E. C.; Blocker, H. D.; [and others]
  • 39.  Tyser, Robin W.; Key, Carl H. 1988. Spotted knapweed in natural area        fescue grasslands: an ecological assessment. Northwest Science. 62(4):        151-160.  [5485]
  • 44.  Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful        in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington,        DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p.        [4837]
  • 45.  Weaver, J. E. 1968. Prairie plants and their environment: A fifty-year        study in the Midwest. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 276 p.        [17549]
  • 25.  Knutson, Herbert; Campbell, John B. 1976. Relationships of grasshoppers        (Acrididae) to burning, grazing, and range sites of native tallgrass        prairie in Kansas. In: Tall Timbers conference on ecological animal        control by Habitat management: Proceedings; 1974 February 28 - March 1;        Gainesville, FL. Number 6. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research        Station: 107-120.  [17851]

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sun to partial sun, mesic to dry conditions, and soil that contains loam, clay-loam, or rocky material. Like many goldenrod species, Missouri Goldenrod is easy to grow. While this goldenrod will spread in cultivation from its rhizomes, it is shorter and less aggressive than the common Canada Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis).
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Other uses and values

More info for the term: cover

Prairie goldenrod has utility for watershed cover and wildlife plantings
[44].
  • 44.  Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful        in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington,        DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p.        [4837]

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Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

More info for the term: reclamation

Prairie goldenrod has utility for revegetation of disturbed areas [36],
minespoil reclamation [6,7] and soil stabilization.  It shows winter
hardiness and moderate drought tolerance [44].

Prairie goldenrod seeds collected in the Badlands of western North
Dakota were grown on raw coal spoil material to evaluate their use in
minespoil reclamation.  Prairie goldenrod had acceptable seedling
emergence and subsequent growth from direct seeding.  Greenhouse plants
had almost 100 percent survival, a higher rate than that of seedlings
[6,7].
  • 6.  Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1982. Perennial forbs for        wildlife habitat restoration on mined lands in the northern Great        Plains. In: Western proceedings, 62nd annual conference of the Western        Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies; 1982 July 19-22; Las Vegas,        Nevada. [Place of publication unknown]
  • 7.  Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1989. Promising native forbs for        seeding on mine spoils. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W.,        compilers. Reclamation, a global perspective: Proceedings of the        conference; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land        Conservation and Reclamation Council: 255-262.  [14354]
  • 36.  Ries, R. E.; Hofmann, L. 1983. Number of seedlings established from        stored prairie hay. In: Brewer, Richard, ed. Proceedings, 8th North        American prairie conference; 1982 August 1-4; Kalamazoo, MI. Kalamazoo,        MI: Western Michigan University, Department of Biology: 3-4.  [3112]
  • 44.  Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful        in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington,        DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p.        [4837]

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Cover Value

More info for the term: cover

The cover value of prairie goldenrod is as follows [12]:

                              ND         UT         WY

     Elk                     ----       poor       poor
     Mule deer               fair       poor       poor
     White-tailed deer       ----       ----       poor
     Pronghorn               fair       poor       poor
     Upland game birds       ----       fair       fair
     Waterfowl               ----       poor       poor
     Small nongame birds     ----       fair       poor
     Small mammals           ----       fair       poor
  • 12.  Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information        network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and        Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior,        Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p.  [806]

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Nutritional Value

Prairie goldenrod energy value and protein value for livestock is poor [12].

The food value of prairie goldenrod is as follows [12]:

                              MT       ND       UT       WY

     Elk                     fair     ----     fair     poor
     Mule deer               fair     fair     fair     good
     White-tailed deer       ----     ----     ----     fair
     Pronghorn               fair     fair     fair     fair
     Upland game birds       ----     ----     fair     fair 
     Waterfowl               ----     ----     poor     poor
     Small nongame birds     ----     ----     fair     fair
     Small mammals           ----     ----     fair     fair
  • 12.  Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information        network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and        Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior,        Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p.  [806]

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Palatability

Prairie goldenrod palatability for livestock in several western states
is as follows [12]:

                     CO       MT       ND       UT       WY

        Cattle      poor     poor     fair     poor     fair
        Sheep       fair     fair     fair     fair     fair
        Horses      poor     poor     fair     poor     fair
  • 12.  Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information        network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and        Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior,        Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p.  [806]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

Prairie goldenrod is rated slightly poisonous to livestock [12].  The
leaves may be eaten by livestock while the plants are relatively
immature in the spring and early summer, but it is generally considered
poor forage [22] and is of limited importance as a forage plant [17].
Prairie goldenrod was available for use by domestic sheep in
southeastern Montana, but was not a component of their diet in June,
July, or August of 1979 [2].

Prairie goldenrod was eaten by mule deer in east-central Idaho in
February, 1976, but was a very minor component of their diet.  It was
not utilized any other month [23].

Only incidental use is made of prairie goldenrod by small mammals and
birds [44].

The flowerheads of prairie goldenrod are used by flies, bees,
butterflies, and beetles for pollen and nectar [5].
  • 2.  Alexander, Lynn E.; Uresk, Daniel W.; Hansen, Richard M. 1983. Summer        food habits of domestic sheep in southeastern Montana. Journal of Range        Management. 36(3): 307-308.  [6003]
  • 5.  Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The        Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p.  [3801]
  • 12.  Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information        network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and        Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior,        Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p.  [806]
  • 17.  Goetz, Harold. 1963. Growth and development of native range plants in        the mixed grass prairie of western North Dakota. Fargo, ND: North Dakota        State University. 141 p. Thesis.  [5661]
  • 22.  Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota        grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota        State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p.  [18501]
  • 23.  Keay, Jeffrey A. 1977. Relationship of habitat use patterns and forage        preferences of white-tailed and mule deer to post-fire vegetation, Upper        Selway River. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 76 p. Thesis.  [1316]
  • 44.  Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful        in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington,        DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p.        [4837]

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Wikipedia

Solidago missouriensis

Solidago missouriensis is a species of flowering plant in the aster family known by the common names Missouri goldenrod and prairie goldenrod. It is native to North America, where it is widespread in Canada and the United States.[1] Its distribution extends into Coahuila in Mexico.[2]

This plant is variable in appearance, and there are a number of varieties.[2] In general, it is a perennial herb growing from a caudex or rhizome, or both. It reaches one meter in maximum height. The roots may reach 2 m (6.6 ft) deep in the soil.[1] The rigid leaves are up to 30 centimeters (12 inches) long, becoming smaller farther up the stem.[3] The inflorescence is a branching panicle of many flower heads at the top of the stem. The head contains about 8 yellow ray florets a few millimeters long and several disc florets. The fruit is an achene tipped with a pappus of bristles.[1]

This plant can be found in many types of habitat. It is common on the Great Plains. It grows preferably in dry, open habitat and can occur at high elevations. It colonizes disturbed soils. During the Dust Bowl-era drought, when many of the native grasses and plants died, the goldenrod flourished in the dry, cleared soil. As the drought ended and the grasses returned, the goldenrod became less common, disappearing in many areas. It grows in soils turned over by burrowing animals and on roadsides and mining sites.[1]

The goldenrod is common in a number of regions, including tallgrass prairie in west-central Missouri, sandhills prairie in southeastern North Dakota, the Cypress Hills of southeastern Alberta, riparian habitat in northwestern Montana, and the pine barrens of northern Wisconsin.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Walsh, Roberta A. (1994) Solidago missouriensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. Retrieved 12-11-2011.
  2. ^ a b Solidago missouriensis. Flora of North America. Retrieved 12-11-2011.
  3. ^ Solidago missouriensis. Washington Burke Museum. Retrieved 12-11-2011.
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Notes

Comments

Solidago missouriensis was often introduced along railroad lines farther east. It is a highly variable species. In the east, it can be similar to S. juncea and is not always easily distinguished where ranges overlap. In the west, it can similar to smaller plants of S. spectabilis. It is distinguished from the related species by its usually 3-nerved proximal leaves and the usually thin, elongate rhizomes. Across the prairies the species is known to be diploid only (2n = 18). In the Rocky Mountains, tetraploids (2n = 36) are common, the diploids infrequent.

A number of varieties have been described. Shorter, often larger-headed plants (tetraploids when known) from the Rocky Mountains have been treated as var. missouriensis (including var. extraria). Taller, more leafy-stemmed plants, mostly from the eastern half of the range, but occasionally west to Washington, have been treated as var. fasciculata. Plants from Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico with long, linear leaves have been treated as var. tenuissima. Larger-headed plants with narrow bracts from prairies west of the Cascades in Oregon and Washington have been treated as var. tolmieana. A. Cronquist (1994) opted not to recognize varieties, noting that all appeared to grade continuously into each other. A detailed study of the species is needed.

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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Kartesz (1999) subsumes Solidago missouriensis var. extraria into S. missouriensis var. missouriensis.

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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Common Names

prairie goldenrod
Missouri goldenrod

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The currently accepted scientific name of prairie goldenrod is Solidago
missouriensis Nutt. [19,5]. It is in the sunflower family (Asteraceae).

Recognized varieties are as follows:

S. m. var. missouriensis [19,20]
S. m. var. extraria Gray [20]
S. m. var. fasciculata Holz. [19,20]
S. m. var. tolmieana (Gray) Cronq. [20]

Solidago missouriensis var. fasciculata hybridizes with goldenrod
(Solidago juncea) [14].
  • 14.  Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections        supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 19.  Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.        Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p.  [1603]
  • 20.  Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific        Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p.  [1168]
  • 5.  Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The        Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p.  [3801]

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