Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

This small goldenrod blooms later than most goldenrods. Field Goldenrod can be distinguished from other goldenrods that occur in Illinois prairies and other open areas by the presence of secondary leaflets along the central stem and the presence of short fine hairs on both the leaves and central stem. In addition, the inflorescence is usually more narrow and wand-like than those of other goldenrods. Return
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Description

This perennial plant is unbranched and about ½-2½' tall. The central stem is reddish or grayish green, terete, and densely covered with short white hairs. The alternate leaves are up to 4" long and ¾" across, becoming smaller as they ascend the stem. They are grayish green, narrowly lanceolate, elliptic, or oblanceolate in shape, tapering gradually to narrow petioles. The leaf margins are smooth (entire) or slightly serrate, while the leaf surfaces are canescent. In addition, there are usually small clusters of secondary leaves that are located along the axils of middle to upper leaves. These secondary leaves are much smaller in size than the alternate leaves, otherwise they are similar in appearance. The central stem terminates in a narrow inflorescence that is shaped like a wand, becoming gradually wider in the middle, and it has a tendency to nod. This inflorescence is typically 3-8" long; it is a narrow panicle of flowerheads with short lateral branches. Each flowerhead is up to ¼" across, consisting of 4-10 ray florets that surround a similar number of disk florets. The petaloid rays of the flowerheads are yellow; the tiny tubular corollas of the disk florets are also yellow. Around the base of each flowerhead, there are scale-like floral bracts (phyllaries) in several series; they are usually pale yellow or pale greenish yellow. The blooming period occurs during the fall and lasts about a month. The flowerheads occasionally have a slight fragrance. After the blooming period, the flowerheads are replaced by achenes that develop tufts of hair; they are dispersed by the wind. The root system consists of a small caudex (at least on older plants) with fibrous roots and rhizomes. At suitable locations, Field Goldenrod has a tendency to form clonal colonies.
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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Cultivated, Native of North Temperate America"
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Field Goldenrod occurs in most counties of Illinois, where it is occasional to locally common (see Distribution Map). Habitats include upland areas of black soil prairies, gravel prairies, sand prairies, hill prairies, thinly wooded bluffs, sandy savannas, sand dunes, fence rows, abandoned fields, eroded clay banks, roadsides, and areas along railroads. In some western states, Field Goldenrod is considered a troublesome weed, but in Illinois it occurs primarily in areas that have little value to agriculture and ranching. This goldenrod is found in both degraded and higher quality habitats.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Tamil Nadu: Nilgiri
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants 20–100 cm; caudices short-branched. Stems 1–6(–10) , erect, short-canescent (hairs ascending to appressed). Leaves: basal and proximal cauline tapering to long, winged petioles, blades spatulate-ovate to oblanceolate, 20–95 × 7–15 mm, margins crenate to entire, apices acute, faces densely puberulent; mid and distal cauline (sometimes subtending axillary tufts of lateral branch leaves) sessile, blades linear-oblance-olate, 16–45 × 3–7 mm, reduced distally, margins entire. Heads 10–300, secund, in wandlike pyramidal, paniculiform arrays, secund to apically recurved, 8–25 × 2.5–10 cm, sometimes proximal branches elongate, repeating pattern. Peduncles 2–3.5 mm, bracteoles 0–4, linear. Involucres narrowly campanulate, 2.6–5.8 mm. Phyllaries in 3 series, ovate to linear-lanceolate, unequal, outer acute, inner obtuse. Ray florets 5–11; laminae 2.8–5.5 × 0.3–0.7 mm. Disc florets 3–10; 2.5–4.6 mm, lobes 0.4-0.6 mm. Cypselae (obconic) 0.5–2 mm, strigose; pappi 2–4 mm.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Field Goldenrod occurs in most counties of Illinois, where it is occasional to locally common (see Distribution Map). Habitats include upland areas of black soil prairies, gravel prairies, sand prairies, hill prairies, thinly wooded bluffs, sandy savannas, sand dunes, fence rows, abandoned fields, eroded clay banks, roadsides, and areas along railroads. In some western states, Field Goldenrod is considered a troublesome weed, but in Illinois it occurs primarily in areas that have little value to agriculture and ranching. This goldenrod is found in both degraded and higher quality habitats.
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Associations

Faunal Associations

A wide variety of insects visit the flowers for pollen and nectar, including long-tongued bees, short-tongued bees, Sphecid and Vespid wasps, flies, butterflies, moths, and beetles. Bee visitors include honey bees, little carpenter bees (Ceratina spp.), Halictid bees, plasterer bees (Colletes spp.), and Andrenid bees. Several Andrenid bees are oligoleges (specialist pollinators) of goldenrods. Fly visitors include Syrphid flies, Tachinid flies, flesh flies, blow flies, and Muscid flies. Other insects feed destructively on the foliage, florets, roots, and other parts of Field Goldenrod and other goldenrods. These insect feeders include Lopidea media (Goldenrod Plant Bug), Corythucha marmorata (Goldenrod Lace Bug), Hesperotettix viridis (Meadow Purple-Striped Grasshopper) and Melanoplus confusus (Little Pasture Grasshopper), Manomera blatchleyi (Blatchley's Walkingstick), the leaf beetles Longitarsus solidaginis and Ophraella sexvititta, the aphids Acuticauda solidaginifoliae and Uroleucon rudbeckiae, and the leafhopper Paraphlepsius solidaginis. In addition, the caterpillars of many moths feed on various parts of goldenrods (see Moth Table). Goldenrods are sources of food to some vertebrate animals. For example, the seeds, flowerheads, and leaves are eaten by the Greater Prairie Chicken and possibly other upland gamebirds; the Eastern Goldfinch also eats the seeds. Mammalian herbivores, such as groundhogs, rabbits, deer, and livestock, will browse on Field Goldenrod and other goldenrods occasionally, although they are not preferred as sources of food. Photographic Location
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Flower-Visiting Insects of Field Goldenrod in Illinois

Solidago nemoralis (Field Goldenrod)
(Bees collect pollen or suck nectar, flies & beetles feed on pollen or suck nectar; other insects suck nectar; some observations are from Reed, Evans, Swengel & Swengel, and Krombein et al. as indicated below, otherwise they are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp fq (Rb, Ev); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus affinis (Re), Bombus auricomus sn, Bombus griseocallis (Re), Bombus impatiens sn (Rb, Ev, Re), Bombus pensylvanica sn, Bombus ternarius (Re), Bombus vagans (Re); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina sp. (Re), Ceratina dupla dupla sn (Rb, Ev) fq; Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus scutellaris sn (Re), Triepeolus cressonii cressonii sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes rustica (Re); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn cp, Megachile latimanus (Re), Megachile mendica (Ev), Megachile pugnatus (Re); Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades leavitti sn cp

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon virescens (Ev), Augochlorella aurata sn, Augochloropsis metallica metallica (Re), Augochloropsis sumptuosa (Re), Halictus ligatus sn, Halictus rubicunda (Ev), Lasioglossum illinoensis sn, Lasioglossum lineatulus (Re), Lasioglossum pectoralis sn (Rb, Ev), Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus (Ev, Re), Lasioglossum versatus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum vierecki (Re), Paralictus platyparius sn; Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes sp. sn (Re); Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes americana sn cp fq, Colletes compactus sn cp fq, Colletes eulophi sn cp, Colletes mandibularis (Re), Colletes simulans armata sn cp fq olg (Rb, Ev, Re); Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus mesillae sn fq, Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena accepta (Kr), Andrena asteris sn cp (Rb, Kr), Andrena hirticincta cp olg (Re), Andrena nubecula sn cp fq olg, Andrena placata cp olg (Re), Andrena simplex cp olg (Re, Kr); Andrenidae (Panurginae): Heterosarus andrenoides sn cp, Heterosarus compositarum sn, Heterosarus nebrascensis (Re)

Wasps
Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Ectemnius lapidarius (Re), Ectemnius rufifemur, Lestica confluentus fq, Oxybelus mexicanus; Sphecidae (Larrinae): Ancistromma distincta; Sphecidae (Pemphredoninae): Mimesa denticulata; Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris clypeata, Cerceris deserta (Re), Cerceris finitima, Cerceris kennicottii, Philanthus bilunatus (Re), Philanthus gibbosus, Philanthus politus (Re); Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi, Ammophila pictipennis, Ammophila procera; Tiphiidae: Myzinum maculata (Re), Myzinum quinquecincta (Re); Vespidae: Polistes annularis fq, Polistes carolina, Polistes fuscata fq (Rb, Re), Vespula vidua (Re); Vespidae (Eumeninae): Ancistrocerus adiabatus (Rb, Re), Ancistrocerus catskill, Euodynerus foraminatus (Rb, Re), Stenodynerus anormis, Stenodynerus histrionalis; Pompilidae: Anoplius sp. (Re), Anoplius illinoensis, Anoplius marginatus, Aporus niger, Ceropales fulvipes, Ceropales maculata; Chrysididae: Ceratochrysis perpulchra; Braconidae: Chelonus sericeus (Rb, Re)

Flies
Syrphidae: Dasysyrphus venustus sn, Eristalis dimidiatus (Re), Eupeodes americanus sn fp, Sphaerophoria contiqua sn, Spilomyia longicornis sn, Syritta pipiens sn fp (Rb, Re), Toxomerus geminatus sn; Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa caliptera (Re), Sparnopolius confusus sn, Systropus macer sn; Conopidae: Thecophora occidensis sn; Tachinidae: Archytas aterrima sn, Gymnosoma fuliginosum sn, Lydina areos sn, Trichopoda pennipes sn, Xanthomelanodes arcuatus sn; Sarcophagidae: Amobia aurifrons sn fq, Blaesoxipha hunteri sn, Helicobia rapax sn, Ravinia anxia sn; Calliphoridae: Cochliomyia macellaria sn, Lucilia illustris sn, Lucilia sericata sn; Muscidae: Musca domestica sn, Neomyia cornicina sn, Stomoxys calcitrans sn; Chloropidae: Chlorops proximus sn; Tephritidae: Dioxyna picciola sn, Trupanea mevarna sn

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Danaus plexippus; Lycaenidae: Lycaeides melissa samuelis (Sw); Pieridae: Colias sp. (Re), Colias philodice, Eurema lisa

Moths
Arctiidae: Utetheisa bella; Ctenuchidae: Cisseps fulvicollis (Rb, Re); Noctuidae: Helicoverpa zea

Beetles
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus sn; Cerambycidae: Megacyllene robiniae fp np; Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica longicornis sn; Coccinellidae: Coccinella novemnotata fp np; Meloidae: Epicauta pensylvanica fp np fq icp

Plant Bugs
Miridae: Lygus lineolaris; Lygaeidae: Lygaeus turcicus; Alydidae: Alydus pilosulus

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Golovinomyces orontii parasitises live Solidago nemoralis

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Solidago nemoralis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Solidago nemoralis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 22
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sun and dry-mesic to dry soil. Because of reduced competition, Field Goldenrod thrives best in soil containing sand, clay or gravel, but it will flourish in fertile soil as well. This plant is a good choice for difficult locations, such as sunny slopes or open areas with poor soil, where little else will grow.
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Notes

Comments

The arrays can be elongate with ends bent nearly 90–180°.
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