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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Eurasia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants to 100–300 cm. Basal leaves: petioles solid, 15–36 cm, glabrous or thinly cobwebby; blades 25–80 × 20–70 cm, coarsely dentate to subentire, abaxially thinly gray-tomentose, adaxially green, sparsely short-hairy to nearly glabrous. Heads usually in corymbiform clusters, long-pedunculate. Peduncles 2.5–6 cm. Involucres 25–45 mm diam. Phyllaries linear to linear-lanceolate, glabrous to loosely cobwebby, inner usually stramineous (sometimes purplish), margins with minute spreading or reflexed hairs. Florets 40+; corollas purple (occasionally white), 9–14 mm, glabrous. Cypselae light brown, often with darker spots, 6–7.5 mm; pappus bristles 2–5 mm. 2n = 32 (Japan), 34 (China), 36 (Japan); (Sweden).
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Elevation Range

2100-3700 m
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Ecology

Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Great Burdock in Illinois

Arctium lappa (Great Burdock) introduced
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen, flies suck nectar or feed on pollen, beetles feed on pollen, other insects suck nectar; observations are from Graenicher)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus affinis sn cp, Bombus centralis sn cp, Bombus griseocallis sn cp, Bombus pensylvanica sn cp, Bombus ternarius sn cp, Bombus vagans sn cp; Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Triepeolus donatus sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes desponsa sn cp, Melissodes nivea, Melissodes trinodis sn; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile centuncularis sn cp, Megachile latimanus sn cp, Megachile mucida sn, Megachile pugnatus sn cp; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Osmia distincta sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn cp, Agapostemon virescens sn cp, Augochlorella striata sn cp, Halictus (or Lasioglossum) sp. sn cp, Halictus confusus sn cp, Lasioglossum cinctipes sn cp, Lasioglossum connexus sn cp, Lasioglossum coriaceus sn cp, Lasioglossum forbesii sn cp, Lasioglossum imitatus sn cp, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp, Lasioglossum zephyrus sn cp

Wasps
Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Eremnophila aureonotata; Vespidae: Dolichovespula arenaria, Polistes fuscata

Flies
Bombyliidae: Bombylius major, Villa alternata; Syrphidae: Eristalis anthophorina, Eristalis flavipes, Eristalis tenax, Eristalis transversus, Eupeodes americanus, Helophilus chrysostomus, Helophilus fasciatus, Platycheirus hyperboreus, Sphaerophoria contiqua, Syritta pipiens, Syrphus ribesii, Toxomerus geminatus, Tropidia quadrata

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Speyeria cybele; Pieridae: Colias philodice, Pieris rapae

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Ancyloxypha numitor, Epargyreus clarus, Polites peckius, Polites themistocles

Beetles
Cerambycidae: Typocerus vulutina fp; Cleridae: Trichodes apivorus fp

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe depressa parasitises live Arctium minus ssp nemorosum

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous colony of Ramularia hyphomycetous anamorph of Ramularia abscondita causes spots on live leaf of Arctium minus ssp nemorosum

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Tephritis bardanae feeds within capitulum of Arctium minus ssp nemorosum

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / feeds on
few, epiphyllous pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta doronici feeds on leaf of Arctium lappa
Remarks: season: 9

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, abundant pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta microspora causes spots on live leaf of Arctium lappa

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious, subepidermal pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthe arctii is saprobic on dead, overwintered stem of Arctium lappa
Remarks: season: <7
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
cleistothecium of Erysiphe depressa parasitises live leaf of Arctium lappa

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Erythricium laetum is saprobic on dead stem of Arctium lappa

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodermella corrugata is saprobic on dead stem of Arctium lappa

Foodplant / miner
larva (young) of Melanagromyza lappae mines leaf -> midrib -> stem of Arctium lappa

Foodplant / miner
larva of Phytomyza lappae mines leaf of Arctium lappa

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pleurophragmium dematiaceous anamorph of Pleurophragmium parvisporum is saprobic on dead stem of Arctium lappa
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pseudospiropes dematiaceous anamorph of Pseudospiropes subuliferus is saprobic on dead stem (near base) of Arctium lappa

Foodplant / parasite
mostly hypophyllous telium of Puccinia calcitrapae parasitises live leaf of Arctium lappa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent apothecium of Pyrenopeziza arctii is saprobic on dead, overwintered stem of Arctium lappa
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous colony of Ramularia hyphomycetous anamorph of Ramularia abscondita causes spots on live leaf of Arctium lappa

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial colony of Sarcopodium dematiaceous anamorph of Sarcopodium circinatum is saprobic on dead stem of Arctium lappa

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Tenthredo mesomelas grazes on leaf of Arctium lappa

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Tephritis bardanae feeds within capitulum of Arctium lappa

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Terellia tussilaginis feeds within capitulum of Arctium lappa

Foodplant / miner
larva of Trypeta zoe mines leaf of Arctium lappa
Remarks: Other: uncertain

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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Hooks adhere to wooly coats: burdock
 

The calyx of the burdock attach to the wooly animal coats via scales tipped by incurved hooks.

     
 

"Calyx globular, formed of numerous narrow scales, each tipped with a little incurved hook, by means of which the whole calyx, when laden with ripe seed, easily separating from its stalk, adheres to the hairy or wooly coats of animals, who can scarcely free themselves from this encumbrance without rubbing the calyx to pieces, and so scattering the seed about their habitations, where it is most likely to meet with a manured soil." (Smith and Sowerby 1804:1228)


  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Smith JE; Sowerby J. 1804. English Botany, or Coloured Figures of British Plants, with their Essential Characters, Synonyms and Places of Growth. Vol. XVIII. London: R. Taylor.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Arctium lappa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Arctium lappa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 12
Specimens with Barcodes: 18
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Arctium lappa

Arctium lappa, commonly called greater burdock,[1] gobō,edible burdock,[1] lappa,[1] or beggar's buttons,[1] is a biennial plant[citation needed] of the Arctium (burdock) genus in the Asteraceae family, cultivated in gardens for its root used as a vegetable. It is an invasive weed of high-nitrogen soils.

Description[edit]

Inflorescence.

Greater Burdock is rather tall, reaching as much as 9 feet (2.7 m).[2] It has large, alternating, cordiform leaves that have a long petiole and are pubescent on the underside.

The flowers are purple and grouped in globular capitula, united in clusters. They appear in mid-summer, from July to September.[3] The capitula are surrounded by an involucre made out of many bracts, each curving to form a hook, allowing them to be carried long distances on the fur of animals. The fruits are achenes; they are long, compressed, with short pappuses. The fleshy tap-root can grow up to 3 feet (0.91 m) deep.

Distribution and ecology[edit]

This species is native to the temperate regions of the old world, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and from the British Isles through Russia, and the Middle East to China and Japan, including India.

It is naturalized almost everywhere and is usually found in disturbed areas, especially in soil rich in nitrogen. It is commonly cultivated in Japan where it gives its name to a particular construction technique, burdock piling.

The leaves of Greater Burdock provide food for the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera, such as the Thistle Ermine (Myelois circumvoluta).

Cultivation[edit]

It prefers a fresh, worked soil, rich in humus, and should be positioned in full sunlight. Burdock is very reactive to nitrogen fertilizer. Propagation is achieved through sowing the seeds midsummer. The harvest occurs three to four months after the seeding until late autumn, when the roots become too fibrous.

Culinary use[edit]

A Japanese appetizer, kinpira gobō, consisting of sauteed gobō (Greater burdock root) and ninjin (carrot), with a side of sauteed kiriboshi daikon (boiled dried daikon)
"Gobō salad" Japanese burdock salad
Burdock root, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy302 kJ (72 kcal)
17.34 g
Sugars2.9
Dietary fiber3.3 g
0.15 g
1.53 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(1%)
0.01 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(3%)
0.03 mg
Niacin (B3)
(2%)
0.3 mg
(6%)
0.321 mg
Vitamin B6
(18%)
0.24 mg
Folate (B9)
(6%)
23 μg
Vitamin C
(4%)
3 mg
Vitamin E
(3%)
0.38 mg
Vitamin K
(2%)
1.6 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(4%)
41 mg
Iron
(6%)
0.8 mg
Magnesium
(11%)
38 mg
Manganese
(11%)
0.232 mg
Phosphorus
(7%)
51 mg
Potassium
(7%)
308 mg
Sodium
(0%)
5 mg
Zinc
(3%)
0.33 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Greater burdock was used during the Middle Ages as a vegetable, but now it is rarely used, with the exception of Japan where it is called gobō (牛蒡 or ゴボウ), Taiwan (牛蒡), Korea where it is called ueong (우엉), Italy, Brazil and Portugal, where it is known as bardana or "garduna". Plants are cultivated for their slender roots, which can grow about 1 meter long and 2 cm across.

Immature flower stalks may also be harvested in late spring, before flowers appear. The taste resembles that of artichoke, to which the burdock is related.

In the second half of the 20th century, burdock achieved international recognition for its culinary use due to the increasing popularity of the macrobiotic diet, which advocates its consumption. The root contains a fair amount of dietary fiber (GDF, 6g per 100g), calcium, potassium, amino acids,[4] and is low calorie. It contains polyphenols that causes darkened surface and muddy harshness by formation of tannin-iron complexes. Those polyphenols are caffeoylquinic acid derivatives.[5]

The root is very crisp and has a sweet, mild, and pungent flavor with a little muddy harshness that can be reduced by soaking julienned/shredded roots in water for five to ten minutes. The harshness shows excellent harmonization with pork in miso soup (tonjiru) and takikomi gohan (a Japanese-style pilaf).

A popular Japanese dish is kinpira gobō, julienned or shredded burdock root and carrot, braised with soy sauce, sugar, mirin and/or sake, and sesame oil. Another is burdock makizushi (rolled sushi filled with pickled burdock root; the burdock root is often artificially colored orange to resemble a carrot). Gobō can also be found as a fried snack food similar in taste and texture to potato chips and is occasionally used as an ingredient in tempura type dishes.

Use in traditional medicine[edit]

Dried burdock roots (Bardanae radix) contain mucilage, sulfurous acetylene compounds, polyacetylenes and bitter guaianolide-type constituents. They are used in Western folk medicine as a diuretic, diaphoretic, and a blood purifying agent.[6] Anecdotal reports from the 19th century suggest that this medicinal plant has also been used by the Ojibwa tribe, and today, in form of an ingredient in Essiac tea for the alternative treatment of some cancers.[7] As an oily macerate, it is a component of natural cosmetics, shampoos and hair care products. Other plant parts are used to prevent baldness and to treat rheumatoid arthritis, skin infections, acne, boils, bites, eczema, herpes, impetigo, rashes, ringworm, sore throat, sciatica, poison ivy/oak, as a tonic and mild laxative, among other uses. The seeds of greater burdock are employed in traditional Chinese medicine particularly for skin conditions and in cold/flu formulas, under the name niubangzi[8] (Chinese: 牛蒡子; pinyin: niúpángzi; some dictionaries list the Chinese as just 牛蒡 niúbàng.)[9]

Seeds contain arctigenin, which has shown nootropic effects in mice.[10] Arctiin and its aglycone, arctigenin has shown potent in vitro antiviral activities against influenza A virus in mice.[11] Arctiin is transformed into a number of estrogenic metabolites by human intestinal bacteria.[12] Arctigenin has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity in vitro.[13] The seeds have shown some anticancer activity in vitro.[14]

Size[edit]

Size of greater burdock leaves.
The man holding the burdock leaf is 180 cm tall. 
This is a burdock leaf. Note the steps in the background for scale. 

See also[edit]

Arctium minus

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "USDA GRIN taxonomy". 
  2. ^ "COMMON BURDOCK, Arctium minus," Ohio Perennial and Biennial Weed Guide, Ohio State University, http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/weedguide/singlerecord.asp?id=900
  3. ^ Rose, Francis (1981). The Wild Flower Key. Frederick Warne & Co. pp. 386–387. ISBN 0-7232-2419-6. 
  4. ^ (井関 清経=健康サイト編集). "ゴボウの皮はむかないのが"新常識" (06/01/19) - ニュース - nikkei BPnet". Nikkeibp.co.jp. Retrieved 2012-02-02. 
  5. ^ Antioxidative caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in the roots of burdock (Arctium lappa L.). Yoshihiko Maruta, Jun Kawabata and Ryoya Niki, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1995, 43 (10), pp 2592–2595, doi:10.1021/jf00058a007
  6. ^ Chan Y.-S., Cheng L.-N., Wu J.-H., Chan E., Kwan Y.-W., Lee S.M.-Y., Leung G.P.-H., Yu P.H.-F., Chan S.-W.,"A review of the pharmacological effects of Arctium lappa (burdock)" [Article in Press] Inflammopharmacology 2010
  7. ^ Zick S.M., Sen A., Feng Y., Green J., Olatunde S., Boon H."Trial of essiac to ascertain its effect in women with breast cancer (TEA-BC)" Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2006 12:10 (971-980)
  8. ^ School of Chinese Medicine database
  9. ^ Niu Bang Zi (Great Burdock Fruit, Arctium) - Chinese Herbal Medicine Yin Yang house TCM Herbs (2013)
  10. ^ Lee IA, Joh EH, Kim DH, "Arctigenin Isolated from the Seeds of Arctium lappa Ameliorates Memory Deficits in Mice." Planta Med. 2011 Feb 9; Lee IA, Joh EH, Kim DH
  11. ^ "Therapeutic effect of arctiin and arctigenin in immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice infected with influenza" Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2010 33:7 (1199-1205)
  12. ^ Xie L.-H., Ahn E.-M., Akao T., Abdel-Hafez A.A.-M., Nakamura N., Hattori M."Transformation of arctiin to estrogenic and antiestrogenic substances by human intestinal bacteria" Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2003 51:4 (378-384)
  13. ^ Zhao F., Wang L., Liu K. "In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of arctigenin, a lignan from Arctium lappa L., through inhibition on iNOS pathway" Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2009 122:3 (457-462)
  14. ^ Matsumoto T., Hosono-Nishiyama K., Yamada H. , "Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of butyrolactone lignans from Arctium lappa on leukemic cells" Planta Medica 2006 72:3 (276-278)
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Notes

Comments

BONAP lists Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Montana, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, and Wyoming; I have not seen specimens.

Roots and young leaves of Arctium lappa are edible and can be used in a variety of food preparations. Extracts of Arctium species purportedly have health benefits and are sold as food supplements. This species is sometimes cultivated as a minor crop.

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