The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Cronquist, A.J. 1980. Asteraceae. 1: i–xv, 1–261. In Vasc. Fl. S.E. U. S. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Flann C. (ed) (2015). GCC: Global Compositae Checklist (version 5 (Beta), Jun 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, e. 2006. Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 7: Asteraceae, part 2. Fl. N. Amer. 20: i–xxii + 1–666.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Holotype: Greene, E. L. 1902. Pittonia. 5: 74.
  • Holotype: Greene, E. L. 1902. Pittonia. 5: 79.
  • Isotype: Bush, B. F. 1918. Amer. Midl. Naturalist. 5: 164.
  • Isotype: Fernald, M. L. 1915. Rhodora. 17: 12.
  • Isotype: Fernald, M. L. 1922. Rhodora. 23: 293.
  • Isotype: Fernald, M. L. 1946. Rhodora. 48: 65.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Syntype: Greene, E. L. 1902. Pittonia. 5: 79.
  • The Genera of North American Plants 2: 162. 1818. (Gen. N. Amer. Pl.)
  • Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora, Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Cranbrook Inst. of Science, Ann Arbor.
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.


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