Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Endemic to northeast Florida; found in Flagler and St. Johns counties. Historic records (pre-1950) from Clay and Volusia counties.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Perennials, 10–60 cm, (with crown buds). Stems erect, (unbranched) glabrous, eglandular. Leaves mostly basal; opposite (proximal) or alternate; petioles obscure (intergrading with blades); blades lanceolate to lance-linear or linear, 10–25 × 0.5–1.5 cm, bases cuneate, margins entire, faces glabrous, not gland-dotted (cauline 1–5 pairs, smaller). Heads 1(–3). Peduncles 5–10 cm. Involucres broadly hemispheric, 17–25 mm diam. Phyllaries (green with purple veins) 25–30, ovate to lance-ovate, 8–16 × 3–5 mm, apices acuminate, abaxial faces usually glabrous, sometimes puberulent. Paleae 8–9 mm, 3-toothed (middle teeth long-acuminate). Ray florets 12–17; laminae 20–40 mm, (abaxial faces not gland-dotted) . Disc florets 100+; corollas 6–6.5 mm, lobes yellow; anthers dark, appendages yellowish or dark. Cypselae 3 mm, glabrous; pappi of 2 aristate scales 1.5–2 mm plus 2–4 erose scales 0.3–0.6 mm. 2n = 34.
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Diagnostic Description

Helianthus carnosus may be characterized by solitary heads, the disk of the flower about 1.5 cm wide and by leaves mostly basal, with blades usually more than 7 mm wide (Small, 1933).

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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Clearings of moist to wet low pineland savannas, typically on black, highly organic sandy peat (Kral 1983).

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20

Comments: 19 known occurrences as of 2004 Status Survey.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Persistence: PERENNIAL

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G1 - Critically Imperiled

Reasons: A Florida endemic, with 19 known occurrences, located in Flagler and St. Johns counties. Populations are decreasing due to drainage of habitat for agriculture and residential construction.

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

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Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%

Comments: Known population increased as of the 2004 Status Survey but there are no known protected popualtions and most are threatened by roadside management.

Global Long Term Trend: Decline of 70-90%

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Threats

Degree of Threat: Very high - high

Comments: Habitat being drained for agriculture and some for residential construction (stormwater treatment).

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Stewardship Overview: Controlled burnings and/or clearcutting of overstory may be a necessary part of a management regimen for this species. Its habitat should never be drained (Kral, 1983).

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Notes

Comments

Helianthus carnosus is distinctive in morphology and is known from relatively few counties in northeastern Florida.
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