Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

The flowerheads and foliage of this wildflower are quite attractive. Most members of the Aster family with dandelion-like flowerheads (including other Krigia spp. in Illinois) have yellow ray florets, but the ray florets of Two-Flowered Cynthia often have an orange tint. Two-Flowered Cynthia has larger flowerheads (1" across or more), longer floral bracts (1/3" or more), and its achenes have more bristly hairs (20 or more) than either Krigia virginica or Krigia caespitosa (both annuals). Another species, Krigia dandelion (Potato Dandelion) has unbranched flowering stalks that each produce a single flowerhead. In contrast, Two-Flowered Cynthia has flowering stalks that branch above their uppermost cauline leaves, each stalk producing 2-5 flowerheads on separate peduncles.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

This native perennial wildflower consists of a rosette of basal leaves, from which a flowering stalk about 1-2' tall is produced. The basal leaves are up to 7" long and 2" across; they are pale green to green, hairless, and oblanceolate or obovate in shape. Their margins are smooth, undulate, slightly dentate, or slightly pinnatifid. The flowering stalk is pale green, hairless, glaucous, terete, and erect. There are 1-2 cauline leaves on the flowering stalk that are ovate in shape and smooth or dentate along their margins. Where the uppermost cauline leaf occurs, the stalk branches into 2-5 ascending peduncles. Each peduncle terminates in a yellow or orange-yellow flowerhead about 1–1½" across. Each flowerhead has many spreading ray florets and no disk florets. Each ray floret is narrowly oblong and yellow or orange-yellow; it has a truncate tip with 5 small teeth. The base of the flowerhead is surrounded by several floral bracts in a single series; each bract is pale green, linear-lanceolate, hairless, glaucous, and about 1/3" in length or a little longer. The blooming period can occur from late spring to mid-summer and lasts about a month. Later in the year, the ray florets are replaced by small achenes. Each achene is bullet-shaped and truncate at the apex, where it has a tuft of white hairs. The achenes are distributed by the wind. The root system consists of a thickened crown with fibrous roots.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Two-Flowered Cynthia is occasional to locally common throughout Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include open upland woodlands, open sandy woodlands, savannas and sandy savannas, rocky wooded slopes, thinly wooded bluffs, areas along woodland paths, rocky glades, and upland meadows. Two-Flowered Cynthia is often found in upland habitats where Oaks are dominant in areas with thin leaf cover and sparse ground vegetation.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Cynthia viridis Standl.:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Cynthia virginica (L.) D. Don:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Krigia biflora fo. biflora :
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Krigia biflora (Walter) S.F. Blake:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Perennials, 10–70 cm; caudices stout, fibrous-rooted (sometimes propagating by adventitious buds on roots). Stems 1–5+, erect, scapiform, eglandular or glandular-villous distally. Leaves mostly basal (rosettes), some cauline (proximal); petioles ± winged; blades oblance-olate to obovate or spatulate, 5–25 cm, margins entire or remotely dentate to pinnately lobed, lobes narrow to bluntly triangular or rounded, apices acute to obtuse or rounded, faces glabrous. eglandular (usually glaucous); cauline 1–4, sessile, lanceolate, bases sheathing or auriculate-clasping, usually entire, distalmost sometimes reduced, bractlike. Heads (2–)3–20+. Peduncles usually in groups of 2–6 from axils of single or paired distal cauline bracts. Involucres 7–11 mm. Phyllaries 8–18, reflexed in fruit. lanceolate, midveins obscure, apices acute, faces glabrous. Florets 25–60; corollas orange or yellow-orange, 15–25 mm. Cypselae reddish brown, columnar, 2–2.5 mm, 12–15-ribbed; pappi of ca. 10 outer scales 0.3–0.5 mm plus 20–40, barbellulate inner bristles 4.5–5.5 mm. 2n = 10, 20.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Hyoseris biflora Walter, Fl. Carol., 194. 1788; Cynthia virginica (Linnaeus) D. Don ex de Candolle; C. viridis Standley; H. amplexicaulis Michaux; Krigia amplexicaulis (Michaux) Nuttall; K. biflora var. viridis (Standley) K. J. Kim; Tragopogon virginicus Linnaeus
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Holotype for Cynthia viridis Standl.
Catalog Number: US 498744
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): P. C. Standley
Year Collected: 1908
Locality: Near Cowles, Pecas [Pecos?] River National Forest., San Miguel, New Mexico, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2400 to 2400
  • Holotype: Standley, P. C. 1911. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 13: 357.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Isoneotype for Hyoseris biflora Walter
Catalog Number: US 1927088
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: ; Status verified from secondary sources
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. J. Cronquist
Year Collected: 1947
Locality: Moist rocky banks near the Flint River, 4 mi. SE. of Woodbury., Upson, Georgia, United States, North America
  • Isoneotype: Walter, T. Fl. Caroliniana. 194.; Ward, D. B. 2008. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas. 2 (1): 478.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Holotype for Cynthia falcata Standl.
Catalog Number: US 415971
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): B. A. Barlow
Year Collected: 1901
Locality: Turin., Michigan, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Standley, P. C. 1911. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 13: 356.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Isotype for Krigia biflora f. glandulifera Fernald
Catalog Number: US 1651653
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. L. Fernald & A. S. Pease
Year Collected: 1934
Locality: Humboldt., Marquette, Michigan, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Fernald, M. L. 1935. Rhodora. 37: 337.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Two-Flowered Cynthia is occasional to locally common throughout Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include open upland woodlands, open sandy woodlands, savannas and sandy savannas, rocky wooded slopes, thinly wooded bluffs, areas along woodland paths, rocky glades, and upland meadows. Two-Flowered Cynthia is often found in upland habitats where Oaks are dominant in areas with thin leaf cover and sparse ground vegetation.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Two-Flowered Cynthia in Illinois

Krigia biflora (Two-Flowered Cynthia)
(Also referred to as False Dandelion; bees collect pollen or suck nectar; beetles feed on pollen & are non-pollinating; other insects suck nectar; most observations are from Robertson, otherwise they are from Swengel & Swengel as indicated below)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp fq; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus fraternus sn, Bombus griseocallis sn, Bombus pensylvanica sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp fq; Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus interruptus sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Synhalonia speciosa sn fq; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada affabilis sn fq, Nomada articulata sn fq, Nomada illinoiensis sn, Nomada superba superba sn fq; Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys octodentata sn; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis pilosifrons sn fq, Osmia georgica sn cp, Osmia pumila sn; Megachilidae (Stelidini): Stelis lateralis sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon virescens sn cp, Augochlorella aurata sn cp fq, Augochlorella striata sn cp fq, Halictus confusus, Halictus ligatus sn cp fq, Halictus parallelus sn, Halictus rubicunda sn, Lasioglossum albipennis sn cp fq, Lasioglossum coreopsis sn cp, Lasioglossum pectoralis sn cp, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum truncatus (MH), Lasioglossum versatus sn cp fq; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes aestivalis sn cp; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis fp, Hylaeus mesillae sn fp; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena krigiana sn cp fq olg

Wasps
Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Lestica confluentus; Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi, Ammophila pictipennis; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Euodynerus foraminatus, Leionotus scrophulariae, Leionotus ziziae, Stenodynerus ammonia, Stenodynerus anormis fq, Stenodynerus histrionalis

Flies
Syrphidae: Eristalis arbustorum, Eristalis dimidiatus, Eristalis stipator, Eristalis tenax, Eristalis transversus, Helophilus fasciatus, Helophilus latifrons, Sphaerophoria contiqua, Toxomerus marginatus fq, Tropidia mamillata; Conopidae: Thecophora occidensis, Zodion fulvifrons; Tachinidae: Cylindromyia euchenor, Gymnoclytia immaculata, Gymnoclytia occidua; Muscidae: Neomyia cornicina; Fanniidae: Fannia manicata fq

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Phyciodes tharos; Lycaenidae: Lycaeides melissa samuelis (Sw); Pieridae: Colias philodice; Papilionidae: Papilio polyxenes asterias

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Polites peckius

Beetles
Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica undecimpunctata fp np fq; Coccinellidae: Coleomegilla maculata fp np; Languriidae: Languria mozardi fp np fq

Plant Bugs
Lygaeidae: Lygaeus turcicus

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Faunal Associations

The flowerheads attract long-tongued bees (bumblebees, honeybees, Little Carpenter bees, Cuckoo bees, Mason bees), short-tongued bees (Halictid bees, Masked bees), predatory wasps, flies (Syrphid, Tachinid, & others), butterflies, skippers, and beetles. These insects suck nectar, collect pollen, or feed on pollen from the flowerheads. An oligolectic visitor, Andrena krigiana (Krigia Andrenid Bee), is specifically attracted to the flowerheads of Krigia spp. Thus far, I have not observed any evidence that White-Tailed Deer feed on the foliage of Two-Flowered Cynthia, which contains a bitter white latex, although I would not rule out this possibility. Photographic Location
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Krigia biflora

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: TNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is partial or dappled sunlight and mesic to dry conditions. Different kinds of soil are tolerated, including those containing loam, clay-loam, sand, or rocky material. Water-logged sites should be avoided.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Krigia biflora

Krigia biflora, also known as Two-Flower Cynthia or Two-Flower Dwarf Dandelion, is a flower of the Asteraceae (Aster) family. It is native to the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Ontario; and it is native to the U.S. states of Alabama, Arizona, Arkiansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, Wisconsin, and West Virginia. [1] Two-flowered Cynthia is rare in Connecticut, and it is listed as a species of special concern. [2] It is an erect perennial growing 18 to 32 inches tall with yellow to orange-yellow ray flowers about 1 to 1.5 inches across. It grows in a variety of habitats and soils and blooms in late Spring to late Summer. The name of the plant consists of two words: Krigia for David Krieg, the German physician who first collected this plant in Maryland; and biflora, meaning two-flowered. [3]

References[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

Krigia biflora is known from the Eastern deciduous forest biome, tallgrass prairie, Rocky Mountain forest, and Madrean woodlands. It appears to spread clonally by adventitious buds on the roots. It is related to the more leafy-stemmed, freely branching K. montana (K. J. Kim and B. L. Turner 1992); their habital differences are less clear where they are sympatric in the southern Appalachians. An alloploid hybrid between them has become established (see 3. K. montana).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!