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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Maximilian's Sunflower is named after an early botantical explorer of North America. This plant has attractive foliage and flowers, and it is easy to identify because of the unusual leaves. These narrow leaves are longer (up to 12") than the leaves of other Helianthus spp. in Illinois, and they have a distinctive light green or greyish green appearance because of their fine white hairs. Two native species, Helianthus grosseserratus (Sawtooth Sunflower) and Helianthus giganteus (Giant Sunflower), also have narrow leaves, but they are not covered with dense white hairs. Another species resembling Maximilian's Sunflower is Helianthus salicifolius (Willow Sunflower), which occurs in the southern Great Plains. The Willow Sunflower has narrow leaves that are even longer than Maximilian's Sunflower, but they are only ½" across or less. The Willow sunflower is not known to occur in Illinois at the present time, although a colony of 500 plants once existed in Cook County before it was destroyed by commercial development. These plants were undoubtedly adventive from the west. Sometimes the scientific name of Maximilian's Sunflower is spelled Helianthus maximilianii.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Description

This adventive perennial plant is 3-8' tall and largely unbranched, except where the flowers occur. The central stem is stout, round, light green to light red, and densely covered with short white hairs. The leaves occur alternately along the central stem, except for some of the lower leaves, which may occur oppositely from each other. These leaves are up to 12" long and 2" across. They are sessile against the stem, and narrowly lanceolate. Their upper and lower surfaces are light green and covered with fine white hairs. The margins of the leaves are smooth, or they may have widely spaced small teeth. Furthermore, the typical leaf folds upward from the central vein, and curls downward from the stem on account of its length.  From the axils of the upper leaves, there are short flowering stalks. Each of these stalks is more or less erect, bearing a single composite flower and possibly 1 or 2 leaves. Each composite flower is about 2–3½" across. There are 20-40 yellow ray florets, which surround numerous disk florets. Behind each composite flower, there are green bracts that are lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate; they are covered with fine white hairs as well. The blooming period is late summer to fall and lasts about 1 month. The achenes are linear-oblong with a pair of awns on top. They are blown about by the wind, or distributed by animals. The root system consists of fleshy, fibrous roots and rhizomes. Like other perennial sunflowers, this plant can form vegetative colonies.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Description

General: Aster Family (Asteraceae). This native perennial has a stout, rhizomatous root system. It grows from 0.9 m to 2.5 m tall with stems occurring singly or in clusters. The central stem is stout, light green to light red, and covered with short, dense white hairs. Leaves are alternate, up to 30 cm long and 5 cm wide, sessile, narrowly lance-shaped, and folded upward from the central vein. Leaf surfaces are covered with white hairs; margins are smooth or loosely toothed. Short inflorescence stalks emerge from the leaf axils, bearing one composite flower head and one to two leaves. Each inflorescence has two pale green bracts at its base, is 5 to 7 cm in diameter, and has 20 to 40 yellow ray flowers and many yellow disc flowers. Flowering occurs in September and early October. Fruits are achenes that ripen in October and November and are wind or animal dispersed.

The characteristic that distinguishes Maximilian sunflower from other Helianthus species is the grayish appearance given off by dense white hairs on the plant.

Distribution: Maximilian sunflower is native to the central United States, from Ontario, Michigan, and Ohio, west to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado and south to Texas. It may be sparsely introduced east and west of its native range. For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site (http://plants.usda.gov).

Habitat: Maximilian sunflower occurs on rocky upland and loess hill prairies, rocky ledges, and along railways, roadsides, fences, and other disturbed areas. In drier regions, it is found along streams and near wetter areas.

In mixed-grass prairies, it is associated with bluestem, switchgrass, Russian thistle, silverberry, milkweed, and snowberry species. In tallgrass prairies, it is associated with big bluestem, switchgrass, Indian grass, heath aster, ironweed, and Canada goldenrod. In floodplain tallgrass prairies, it is associated with prairie cordgrass, spikesedge, Indian grass, big bluestem, switchgrass, compass plant, milkweed, and annual sunflower.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Alternative names

Helianthus dalyi, Helianthus maximilianii, Maximillian sunflower, Maximilian’s sunflower, Michaelmas-daisy.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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Maximilian sunflower is native to the Great Plains and adjacent areas
[44]. It is found from Saskatchewan and Manitoba south to Missouri and
Texas [17,18,22]. It has been sparingly introduced in the Pacific
Northwest [20], California [30], and east to the Atlantic states [12].
  • 12. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 17. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 18. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 20. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 22. Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p. [18500]
  • 30. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 44. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

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Occurrence in North America

AL AR CA CO CT ID IL IN IA KS
KY ME MA MI MN MO MT NE NM NC
ND OH OK SD TN TX UT WI WY AB
BC MB SK MEXICO

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Adaptation

The USDA hardiness zones for Maximilian sunflower are 3 to 9. Although it can grow in a variety of conditions, it prefers moist clay-like soils, soil depths of 50 cm or more, 250 to 1,270 mm annual precipitation, gentle slopes, and full sun. Soil, moisture, and topography can be variable, but Maximilian sunflower will not tolerate shade. It tends to grow very tall in moist rich soil and may become top-heavy when in bloom. Growth is poor on gravel, dense clay, or saline soils.

Maximilian sunflower plants are allelopathic. They produce chemicals that hinder the growth of neighboring plants. These chemicals are not harmful to livestock and wildlife.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: achene, warm-season

Maximilian sunflower is a warm-season, bunching, perennial native forb
[44]. It grows 1.6 to 8.2 feet (0.5-2.5 m) tall [17], with a spread of
1 to 3 feet (0.3-0.9 m) [21]. Stems grow singly or clustered from short
rhizomes [44]. The flowers occur in long, raceme-like inflorescences
[15]. The floral head is 1.5 to 3 inches (4-8 cm) wide [1]. The fruit
is an achene 0.12 to 0.16 (3-4 mm) long [17]. Maximilian sunflower has
short, thick, rhizomatous rootstocks [17] with crown-buds [15].
  • 1. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 17. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 15. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 21. Jacobson, Erling T. 1975. The evaluation, selection and increase of prairie wildflowers for conservation beautification. In: Wali, Mohan K., ed. Prairie: a multiple view. Grand Forks, ND: University of North Dakota Press: 395-404. [4437]
  • 44. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]

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Description

Perennials, 50–300 cm (rhi-zomatous). Stems erect, 5–30 dm, scabrous to scabro-hispidulous. Leaves cauline; mostly alternate; petioles 0–2 cm; blades (light green to gray-green, 1-nerved, conduplicate) lanceolate, 10–30 × 2–5.5 cm, bases cuneate, margins usually entire, sometimes serrulate, abaxial faces scabrous to scabro-hispid, gland-dotted. Heads (1–)3–15 (often in racemiform to spiciform arrays ). Peduncles 1–11 cm. Involucres hemispheric, 13–28 mm diam. Phyllaries 30–40, lanceolate, 14–20 × 2–3 mm, (margins ciliate) apices acute to attenuate, abaxial faces canescent, gland-dotted. Paleae 7–11 mm, entire or 3-toothed (apices greenish, mucronate, hairy). Ray florets 10–25; laminae (15–)25–40 mm. Disc florets 75+; corollas 5–7 mm, lobes yellow; anthers dark brown or black; appendages usually yellow , sometimes partly dark . Cypselae 3–4 mm, glabrate; pappi of 2 aristate scales 3–4.1 mm. 2n = 34.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Type Information

Type fragment for Helianthus dalyi Britton
Catalog Number: US 494999
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): N. L. Britton
Year Collected: 1898
Locality: Sag Harbor., New York, United States, North America
  • Type fragment: Britton, N. L. 1901. J. New York Bot. Gard. 2: 89.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat characteristics

Maximilian sunflower occurs on dry to moist open prairie, often on sandy
sites [17]. It is best adapted to deep, sandy to clayey loam upland
soils of subhumid prairies [44]. Growth is poor on gravel and dense
clay, fair on sand and clay, and good on sandy to clayey loam.
Maximilian sunflower grows poorly on saline soils. Its optimum soil
depth is 20 inches (50 cm) or more. It is more common on heavier soils
[44]. It is also found on waste ground, roadsides, pastures [1], fence
rows [33], riverbanks [18], and other disturbed areas [29].

Maximilian sunflower generally occurs in areas with 10 to 50 inches
(250-1270 mm) annual precipitation [35], but it can occur on lowlands
with better moisture conditions in the semiaric zones [44].

Maximilian sunflower exhibits good growth on gentle slopes and poor
growth on moderate and steep slopes [10].

Maximilian sunflower occurs at the following elevations [10]:

Elevation (feet) Elevation (m)

CO 3,500-7,000 1,067-2,134
MT 2,300-3,900 700-1,190
WY 3,600-6,000 1,100-1,830
  • 1. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 17. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 10. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 18. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 29. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. (Revised edition). Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]
  • 33. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 35. Seiler, Gerald J.; Carr, Merle E.; Bagby, Marvin O. 1991. Renewable resources from wild sunflowers (Helianthus spp., Asteraceae). Economic Botany. 45(1): 4-15. [22002]
  • 44. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the term: heath

Associates of Maximilian sunflower vary with location, since this
species has a wide ecological amplitude and it occurs in a variety of
prairie ecosystems.

Associates of Maximilian sunflower in mixed-grass prairie south of Lake
Manitoba in Canada include little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium),
big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii), alkali muhly
(Muhlenbergia asperifolia), common witchgrass (Panicum capillare),
Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), Russian thistle (Salsola kali),
silverberry (Eleagnus commutata), showy milkweed (Asclepias speciosa),
and western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis) [27].

Associates of Maximilian sunflower in undisturbed tallgrass prairie on
Mormon Island on the Platte River in Nebraska include the dominant big
bluestem, and lesser components switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Indian
grass (Sorghastrum nutans), heath aster (Aster ericoides), western
ironweed (Vernonia fasciculata), and Canada goldenrod (Solidago
canadensis) [8].

Associates of Maximilian sunflower in floodplain tallgrass prairie in a
wetlands area in Kansas include prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata),
ovoid spikesedge (Eleocharis obtusa), Indian grass (Sorgastrum nutans),
big bluestem, switchgrass, sedge (Carex frankii), common sunflower
(Helianthus annuus), compass plant (Silphium laciniatum), hemp dogbane
(Apocynum cannabinum), common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), and
thickspike gayfeather (Liatris pycnostachya) [7].
  • 7. Cink, Calvin L.; Lowther, Peter E. 1989. Breeding bird populations of a floodplain tallgrass prairie in Kansas. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 259-262. [14059]
  • 8. Currier, Paul J. 1989. Plant species composition and groundwater levels in a Platte River wet meadow. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 19-24. [14013]
  • 27. Love, Askell; Love, Doris. 1954. Vegetation of a prairie marsh. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 81(1): 16-34. [18104]

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Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

K016 Eastern ponderosa forest
K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland
K037 Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub
K056 Wheatgrass - needlegrass shrubsteppe
K064 Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass
K065 Grama - buffalograss
K066 Wheatgrass - needlegrass
K067 Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass
K068 Wheatgrass - grama - buffalograss
K069 Bluestem - grama prairie
K070 Sandsage - bluestem prairie
K071 Shinnery
K074 Bluestem prairie
K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie
K076 Blackland prairie
K081 Oak savanna
K084 Cross Timbers
K098 Northern floodplain forest

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Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

More info for the term: shrub

FRES15 Oak - hickory
FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES29 Sagebrush
FRES31 Shinnery
FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub
FRES35 Pinyon - juniper
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES39 Prairie

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Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

40 Post oak - blackjack oak
42 Bur oak
62 Silver maple - American elm
67 Shin (Mohrs) oak
220 Rocky Mountain juniper
237 Interior ponderosa pine
239 Pinyon - juniper
241 Western live oak

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Dispersal

Establishment

In early winter, rake Maximilian sunflower seeds into loose topsoil and cover with 0.25 to 0.5 inch of soil or mulch. A long cold period is required before germination. The average number of seeds per pound varies by location. The South Dakota Plant Materials Center has listed 250,000 seeds per pound while both the North Carolina Department of Transportation and Texas A&M University report 182,000 seeds per pound. The appropriate seeding rate for pure Maximilian sunflower stands is 5 pounds per acre, allowing space between germinated plants.

If used as part of a prairie seed mixture, Maximilian sunflower seeds should be included at a rate of 0.1 to 0.25 pound per acre. Optimal seeding times are November to May in the central Great Plains and January to March in the southern Great Plains. In Nebraska, Maximilian sunflower established best when weeds were controlled mechanically. Seedling vigor is good.

Growth occurs in late spring and summer with some flowering by the end of the first season. Most Maximilian sunflower plants are not fully developed until the second season. Plants primarily spread by rhizomes after establishment.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Associations

Faunal Associations

The flowers of this species probably attract many of the same insects as other sunflowers, including long-tongued bees, short-tongued bees, butterflies and skippers, and beetles. These insects seek nectar or pollen. The seeds of sunflowers are an attractive food source to both birds and small mammals (see Wildlife Table). The caterpillars of the butterfly Chlosyne nycteis (Silvery Checkerspot) feed on the foliage, while the caterpillars of several Papaipema spp. (Borer Moths) bore through the stems (see the Insect Table for additional species that feed on sunflowers). The foliage of young plants may be eaten by rabbits and groundhogs, while large plants are eaten by livestock. Photographic Location
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: cool-season, cover, forbs, prescribed fire, warm-season

In southwestern Minnesota, a degraded prairie that had been invaded by
shrubs and cool-season grasses was burned each spring from 1983 to 1987.
Native warm-season grasses and forbs, including Maximilian sunflower,
increased in dominance, and the prairie became more open each year.
Maximilian sunflower showed increased vigor, and new individuals were
established [2].

In the High and Rolling Plains of Texas, prescribed fire is used every 3
to 5 years to maintain optimum quail habitat in the grass stands where
Maximilian sunflower occurs [6].

In the Northern Great Plains, the best increases in Maximilian sunflower
vigor, canopy cover, and seed production are obtained with late spring
(May-June) fires [19].
  • 2. Becker, Donald A. 1989. Five years of annual prairie burns. In: Bragg, Thomas A.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 163-168. [14037]
  • 6. Bryant, Fred C.; Smith, Loren M. 1988. The role of wildlife as an economic input into a farming or ranching operation. In: Mitchell, John E., ed. Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the Great Plains: Proceedings; 1987 September 16-18; Denver, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-158. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 95-98. [5147]
  • 19. Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kruse, Arnold D.; Piehl, James L. 1989. Prescribed burning guidelines in the Northern Great Plains. Ext. Circ. EC-760. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Cooperative Extension Service, South Dakota Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. 36 p. [14185]

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Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: cover, litter, mesic, prescribed fire, swale

Fire usually enhances Maximilian sunflower, probably by removing litter,
allowing more sunlight to reach the soil surface, and reducing
competition.

Maximilian sunflower was burned in prescribed fires in May, 1970 and
May, 1971 in east-central North Dakota. It increased in cover more than
100 percent within the first 2 postfire years [23].

When dead vegetation mulch was burned in North Dakota in 1968 and 1969,
Maximilian sunflower and other plants grew taller, stiffer, and seeded
more vigorously [40].

Tallgrass prairie sites containing Maximilian sunflower in northwestern
Minnesota were subjected to prescribed fire in early May, 1972. The
removal of litter by fire varied with the site. In undisturbed prairie
on a mesic site, flowering decreased significantly following fire. On a
wet-mesic site in highly disturbed prairie, there was a slight,
nonsignificant decrease in flowering. On a wet swale in undisturbed
prairie, there was a very significant increase in flowering [32].
  • 23. Kirsch, Leo M.; Kruse, Arnold D. 1973. Prairie fires and wildlife. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1972 June 8-9; Lubbock, TX. Number 12. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 289-303. [8472]
  • 32. Pemble, R. H.; Van Amburg, G. L.; Mattson, Lyle. 1981. Intraspecific variation in flowering activity following a spring burn on a northwestern Minnesota prairie. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The prairie peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey: Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 235-240. [3435]
  • 40. Troester, Herbert G. 1970. Managed prairie burning for wildlife. North Dakota Outdoors. 32(11): 7-9. [14898]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

Maximilian sunflower is probably top-killed by fire during the growing
season. It survives by sprouting from persistent rhizomes [17,44].
  • 17. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 44. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: rhizome, secondary colonizer

Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil
Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

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Fire Ecology

Maximilian sunflower has good fire tolerance in the dormant state, and
can reproduce by rhizomes [44]. It produces numerous, small,
wind-dispersed seeds which germinate over a wide range of temperature
and moisture regimes [38] and can establish on burned sites. Maximilian
sunflower thrives in the open, sunny conditions created by fire [14].
Maximilian sunflower seeds have been found in the seedbank [26], and it
may be an initial on-site colonizer, but no information was available on
seed tolerance to heat or length of seed viability in the seedbank.
  • 14. Gersib, Dick. 1984. From out of the ashes. Nebraskaland. 62(7): 24-29. [14772]
  • 26. Lippert, Robert D.; Hopkins, Harold H. 1950. Study of viable seeds in various habitats in mixed prairie. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 53(3): 355-364. [1461]
  • 38. Skousen, J. G.; Call, C. A. 1985. Sod-seeding low maintenance plant species into coastal bermudagrass sod on lignite overburden in Texas. In: Williams, Dean; Fisher, Scott E., Jr., co-chairmen. "Bridging the gap between science, regulation, & the surface mining operation": Proc., 2nd annualmeeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation; [Date of meeting unknown]
  • 44. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]

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Regeneration Processes

Maximilian sunflower is a perennial which reproduces by seed [31,43].
It also spreads vegetatively by rhizomes, and can form large colonies
[44].

Maximilian sunflower cultivar "Aztec" seeds germinate within 1 to 3
weeks with a germination temperature regime of 12 hours each day at 86
degrees Fahrenheit (30 deg C) or lower [31]. With other seed sources,
germination can occur in 7 to 14 days, but nearly half can be dormant.
Seedling vigor is good [44].

Maximilian sunflower seeds from the soilbank at 22 typical habitats in
Kansas were collected in November, 1945, and stored in cool, dry
conditions until February, 1946. Subsequent germination tests showed
two major periods of germination: one between days 6 and 25, and another
between days 46 and 55 [26].
  • 26. Lippert, Robert D.; Hopkins, Harold H. 1950. Study of viable seeds in various habitats in mixed prairie. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 53(3): 355-364. [1461]
  • 31. Owens, D. W.; Call, C. A. 1985. Germination characteristics of Helianthus maximilianai Schrad. and Simsia calva (Engelm. & Gray) Gray. Journal of Range Management. 38(4): 336-339. [22005]
  • 43. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minespoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15577]
  • 44. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: geophyte, hemicryptophyte

Hemicryptophyte
Geophyte

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Life Form

More info for the term: forb

Forb

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

Facultative Seral Species

Maximilian sunflower thrives in sunlight and has only fair shade
tolerance [44]. Stand longevity can be 5 or more years [9].
  • 9. Dickerson, John A.; Longren, Warren G.; Hadle, Edith K. 1981. Native forb seed production. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The prairie peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 218-222. [3431]
  • 44. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Maximilian sunflower seeds germinate best when soil is warm [31],
generally in May throughout much of the area in which it occurs. Stands
develop rather rapidly from seed. Growth occurs in late spring and
summer [43], with some flowering possible by the end of the first
growing season in the South. However, plants are not usually fully
developed until the second year [44]. Maximilian sunflower dies back to
the ground each year, and regenerates new growth from rhizomes or
root crown buds [43]. Plants continue to spread by rhizomes after
establishment [44].

Maximilian sunflower flowering times are:

Begin Peak End
Flowering Flowering Flowering

CO June August September [10]
IL July ---- August [29]
KS August September October [21]
MT July July September [10]
NC September ---- October [33]
ND July August September [10]
SD July ---- September [22]
WY July July September [10]
Great Plains August ---- October [17]
New England August ---- September [36]
  • 17. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 10. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 21. Jacobson, Erling T. 1975. The evaluation, selection and increase of prairie wildflowers for conservation beautification. In: Wali, Mohan K., ed. Prairie: a multiple view. Grand Forks, ND: University of North Dakota Press: 395-404. [4437]
  • 22. Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p. [18500]
  • 29. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. (Revised edition). Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]
  • 31. Owens, D. W.; Call, C. A. 1985. Germination characteristics of Helianthus maximilianai Schrad. and Simsia calva (Engelm. & Gray) Gray. Journal of Range Management. 38(4): 336-339. [22005]
  • 33. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 36. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 43. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minespoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15577]
  • 44. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Helianthus maximilianii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Helianthus maximiliani

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Management

Management considerations

More info for the terms: forbs, restoration, shrubs

Planting for wildlife: Maximilian sunflower has been planted for cover
and as a food source for scaled quail, northern bobwhites, and mourning
doves in the High and Rolling Plains of Texas [6]. It is a good
addition to a mix of shrubs, forbs, and grasses for use as wildlife
habitat [42].

Planting for prairie establishment: Due to its aggressive spreading,
Maximilian sunflower should be lightly seeded in prairie grass mixtures.
Optimal seeding times are November to May in the Central Great Plains,
and January to March in the Southern Great Plains. Early planting may
aid in breaking seed dormancy [44]. Maximilian sunflower requires low
to moderate moisture and full sun [37]. It was included in a mix of
native prairie grasses and forbs used to establish prairie on previously
cultivated fields in eastern Nebraska from 1975 to 1978. It proved to
be susceptible to herbicides, and established best when mechanical means
were used to control weeds [5].

When buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) in Minnesota was removed by cutting
and stump treatment with herbicide in 1985, Maximilian sunflower, which
had not been present, germinated in treated areas within 3 months of
initial treatment [4].

Maximilian sunflower was evaluated and grown at the Soil Conservation
Service Plant Materials Center in Kansas. Planting procedures are
described [9]. Maximilian sunflower seed accessions are held at
the wild sunflower (Helianthus spp.) nursery of the Plant Introduction
Station in Ames, Iowa. The collection can be used for problems in
prairie establishment or restoration [45].

Grazing: Maximilian sunflower is not common on closely grazed ranges.
Seedlings should be protected from close use and trampling. Moderate
grazing and periodic deferment of grazing during the growing season
enhance the persistance of Maxmimilan sunflower [44].
  • 4. Boudreau, Denise; Willson, Gary. 1992. Buckthorn research and control at Pipestone National Monument. Restoration & Management Notes. 10(1): 94-95. [19497]
  • 5. Bragg, Thomas B.; Sutherland, David M. 1989. Establishing warm-season grasses and forbs using herbicides and mowing. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 81-89. [14023]
  • 6. Bryant, Fred C.; Smith, Loren M. 1988. The role of wildlife as an economic input into a farming or ranching operation. In: Mitchell, John E., ed. Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the Great Plains: Proceedings; 1987 September 16-18; Denver, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-158. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 95-98. [5147]
  • 9. Dickerson, John A.; Longren, Warren G.; Hadle, Edith K. 1981. Native forb seed production. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The prairie peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 218-222. [3431]
  • 37. Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 1989. Catalog of wildflowers and forbs. Amarillo, TX: Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 20 p. [18001]
  • 42. Ueckert, Darrell N. 1988. Establishment of shrubs and forbs in the Southern Plains region. In: Mitchell, John E., ed. Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the Great Plains; 1987 September 16-18; Denver, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-158. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 47-51. [5146]
  • 44. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]
  • 45. Widrlechner, Mark P. 1989. Germplasm resources information network and ex situ conservation of germplasm. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 109-114. [14028]

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Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

The USDA NRCS Plant Materials Center has released Maximilian sunflower cultivars ‘Aztec’ and ‘Prairie Gold’ for conservation use. ‘Aztec’ was released for the purposes of wildlife food, livestock forage cover, natural hedges, screens, filterstrips, and as ornamental landscape plants. ‘Prairie Gold’ was released for critical area reseeding and wildlife food plantings. These plant materials are readily available from commercial sources.

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Seed production

Seeds are ready for collection in late October and November. They are moist stratified for 56 days. Germination occurs at an alternating cycle of 30oC daytime and 15oC nighttime temperatures. The optimum soil temperature for germination is 20oC to 30oC. Seventy percent of seeds will germinate in 7 to 25 days.

One-year-old plants sprout new shoots that can be dug up and cut from the parent plant. Division and transplantation should take place in February or March.

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Maximilian sunflower plants growing on rich, fertile sites will grow tall and spindly. Weak stems will cause the plants to fall and can be staked to remain upright. Older stems can be mechanically cut back at the end of the season to make room for new sprouts.

Maximilian sunflower exhibits fire tolerance in its dormant stage. Seedlings will emerge on open, post-burned sites from the underground seedbank and rhizomes. Following fire in North Dakota, Maximilian sunflower grew taller, stiffer, and seeded more vigorously. Research suggests that plant performance increases following fire in disturbed, invaded areas but not on undisturbed areas. Fire removes competition and opens up the canopy for Maximilian sunflower in the disturbed areas.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sun and mesic to dry conditions. The soil can contain clay-loam, rocky material, or loess. This plant appears to have few problems with pests or foliar disease. It can grow tall and spread aggressively, and may flop over while in bloom if it is grown in moist rich soil. Range & Habitat
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Other uses and values

More info for the term: natural

Maximilian sunflower roots can be prepared and eaten like those of
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus). Native American tribes of
the Great Plains ate them raw, boiled, or roasted [28].

Maximilian sunflower was evaluated as a potential source of industrial
raw materials. Since the natural rubbers present are of low molecular
weight, they may have commercial applications [35].

Maximilian sunflower is used as a garden ornamental [28].
  • 28. Lynn, Sandra D. 1989. Maximilian sunflower. Horticulture. 67: 72. [22003]
  • 35. Seiler, Gerald J.; Carr, Merle E.; Bagby, Marvin O. 1991. Renewable resources from wild sunflowers (Helianthus spp., Asteraceae). Economic Botany. 45(1): 4-15. [22002]

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Cover Value

More info for the term: cover

The cover value of Maximilian sunflower for several species of wildlife
in some western states is as follows [10]:

ND WY

Elk ---- poor
Mule deer fair poor
White-tailed deer fair poor
Pronghorn fair poor
Upland game birds fair ----
Waterfowl poor ----
Small nongame birds fair ----
  • 10. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]

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Palatability

More info for the term: forbs

Maximilian sunflower is a palatable livestock forage of good quality,
[22], and is also used by deer [44]. It remains green after
many other forbs have matured [22], but little use is made of the
herbage after frost [44]. The seeds are choice food for quail and
dove [42], and are eaten by many other birds [44].

Maximilian sunflower palatability for livestock in several western
states is as follows [10]:

CO MT ND

Cattle fair fair good
Sheep fair fair fair
Horses fair ---- good
  • 10. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 22. Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p. [18500]
  • 42. Ueckert, Darrell N. 1988. Establishment of shrubs and forbs in the Southern Plains region. In: Mitchell, John E., ed. Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the Great Plains; 1987 September 16-18; Denver, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-158. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 47-51. [5146]
  • 44. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: cover

Maximilian sunflower is part of the tall, thick, ungrazed cover in North
Dakota that ducks and pheasants seek out for nesting. It also provides
winter cover and its seeds are an important winter food [40].

In Montana, Maximilian sunflower is rated as valuable fall forage for
Rocky Mountain elk [25].
  • 25. Kufeld, Roland C. 1973. Foods eaten by the Rocky Mountain elk. Journal of Range Management. 26(2): 106-113. [1385]
  • 40. Troester, Herbert G. 1970. Managed prairie burning for wildlife. North Dakota Outdoors. 32(11): 7-9. [14898]

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Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

Maximilian sunflower was determined by the Soil Conservation Service
Plant Materials Center in Kansas to be appropriate for use in
rehabilitation of degraded sites and for visual enhancement. In field
tests it showed excellent vigor [21].

Maximilian sunflower has been used successfully for revegetation of coal
minespoils in Kansas. It established with native grasses on abandoned
spoils graded to rolling topography, limed, and disced [43].

The Soil Conservation Service recommends Maximilian sunflower cultivar
"Aztec" for use in rehabilitation in southern Oklahoma, all of Texas
except the Trans-Pecos region, and eastward. The cultivar "Prairie
Gold" has greater cold tolerance, and can be used for revegetation
farther north [44].

Maximilian sunflower is suggested for use on roadsides, in parks, for
wildlife habitat, and in establishing prairies [37].
  • 21. Jacobson, Erling T. 1975. The evaluation, selection and increase of prairie wildflowers for conservation beautification. In: Wali, Mohan K., ed. Prairie: a multiple view. Grand Forks, ND: University of North Dakota Press: 395-404. [4437]
  • 37. Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 1989. Catalog of wildflowers and forbs. Amarillo, TX: Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 20 p. [18001]
  • 43. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minespoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15577]
  • 44. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]

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Nutritional Value

Maximilian sunflower energy value for livestock is fair. Protein value
is poor [10].

The food value of Maximilian sunflower for several species of wildlife
in some western states is as follows [10]:

CO MT ND WY

Elk ---- poor ---- good
Mule deer ---- poor good poor
White-tailed deer ---- ---- good poor
Pronghorn poor ---- good ----
Upland game birds ---- ---- fair ----
Waterfowl ---- ---- poor ----
Small nongame birds ---- ---- good ----
  • 10. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]

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Uses

Erosion control: Maximilian sunflower has a perennial root crown and rhizomatous root system. Annual stems are produced from underground stems. This growth pattern allows Maximilian sunflower to spread and form dense plant clusters, reinforcing soil and preventing erosion.

Ethnobotanic: Native Americans used parts of this plant as sources of food, oil, dye, and thread. Pioneers planted Maximilian sunflowers near their homes to repel mosquitoes and used the blossoms in bathwater to relieve arthritis pain. Sunflower seeds are eaten as snack items and sprinkled on salads and other foods.

Industrial products: The natural rubber present in Maximilian sunflower qualifies the plant as a potential source of industrial raw materials.

Livestock: Although the protein value of Maximilian sunflower is poor, it is a palatable livestock forage species. It remains green late into the fall and is consumed until the first frost makes it less flavorful. It is plentiful on ranges that are not closely grazed.

Moderate grazing can increase the presence of Maximilian sunflower.

Ornamental: The bright yellow flowers of Maximilian sunflower make it a popular choice for use in native gardens. It can be utilized as a hedge or natural screen because of its height.

Restoration: Maximilian sunflower is used as a conservation planting for habitat development, prairie restoration and landscaping, and range and pasture maintenance. It can be used in filterstrip plantings. It has been used with native grasses in Kansas to revegetate coalmine spoils.

Wildlife: Butterflies, beetles, and long- and short-tongued bees consume the nectar or pollen produced the flowers of Maximilian sunflower. Butterfly caterpillars feed on the foliage while moth caterpillars bore through the stems. Upland game birds, small non-game birds, and some waterfowl consume its seeds. Rabbits and groundhogs feed on young plants while elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, and pronghorn antelope browse and graze older plants. It has poor nutritional value for these species. Habitat and cover are provided to birds and small mammals by individual plant clusters and dense colonies formed with other shrub-like plants.

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Wikipedia

Helianthus maximiliani

Helianthus maximiliani (also, H. maximilianii) is a species of sunflower known by the common name Maximilian sunflower.

This sunflower is named for Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied, who encountered it on his travels in North America.

Repartition[edit]

Native to much of the eastern half of North America, it is found in parts of the western half as an introduced species. The plant thrives in a number of ecosystems, particularly across the plains in central Canada and the United States. It is also cultivated as an ornamental.[1]

Description[edit]

A branching perennial herb, growing from a stout rhizome and reaches heights from one half to three meters. The slender, tall, erect stems and alternately-arranged leaves are covered in rough hairs.

The lance-shaped leaves are narrow, pointed, folded down the midvein, and up to 30 centimeters long on large plants.

The flower heads are surrounded at the base by pointed green phyllaries which often stick straight out and curl at the tips. The center is filled with yellow tipped brown disc florets and the circumference is lined with bright yellow ray florets 2 to 4 centimeters long.

The plant reproduces by seed and by vegetative sprouting from the rhizome.

Uses[edit]

The thick rhizome is edible and provided a food similar to the Jerusalem artichoke for Native American groups such as the Sioux. The flower heads are attractive to insects and the fruits are eaten by birds.

The Land Institute, a perennial agriculture research center located in Salina, Kansas, run by Wes Jackson is experimenting with this species to create a perennial oilseed grain crop that does not necessitate replanting each season.

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Notes

Comments

Helianthus maximiliani is introduced in eastern Ontario and in Quebec. It appears to be native to midcontinental prairie regions and has spread along railroads and highways into all areas of North America. Its wide dispersal may be aided by cultivation for its attractive, showy floral displays. In addition to the usually conduplicate, single-nerved leaves and spikelike arrangement of the heads, it is distinguished by the whitish-canescent indument of the leaves and stems and the long-attenuate phyllaries.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Common Names

Maximilian sunflower
Maximillian sunflower
Maximilian's sunflower

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The currently accepted scientific name of Maximilian sunflower is
Helianthus maximiliani Schrad. [1,16,18,33]. It is a member of the
sunflower family (Asteraceae). There are no recognized subspecies,
varieties, or forms.
  • 1. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 18. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 33. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 16. Gonzalez-Elizondo, M. Socorro; Gomez-Sanchez, Daniel. 1992. Notes on Helianthus (Compositae-Helianthaeae) from Mexico. Phytologia. 72(1): 58-62. [22004]

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Synonyms

Helianthus maximilianii Schrad. [17,20]
  • 17. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 20. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]

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