Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Helianthus saxicola Small:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Helianthus montanus E. Watson:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Helianthus strumosus L.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Perennials, 100–200 cm (rhizomatous). Stems erect, glabrous or glabrate. Leaves cauline; mostly opposite, sometimes alternate (distal); petioles 1–3 cm; blades (light to dark green, 3-nerved distal to bases) lanceolate to lance-ovate or ovate, 7–18 × 2–10 cm, bases subcordate to ± cuneate, margins entire to ± serrate, abaxial faces glabrous or tomentulose, usually densely gland-dotted. Heads 3–15. Peduncles 1–9 cm. Involucres cylindric to hemispheric, 8–20 mm diam. Phyllaries 18–25 (erect, loose, or squarrose), lanceolate, 5.5–10 × 1.5–3 mm (equaling or slightly surpassing discs), (margins usually ciliate) apices acute to acuminate, abaxial faces glabrous or hispidulous, usually not gland-dotted. Paleae 5.3–6.5 mm, 3-toothed. Ray florets 10–20; laminae ca. 12–20(–30) mm. Disc florets 35+; corollas 5.5–6.5 mm, lobes yellow; anthers dark, appendages dark or reddish brown. Cypselae 4–5.5 mm, glabrate; pappi of 2 aristate scales (1–)2–2.5 mm. 2n = 68, 102.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Helianthus montanus E. Watson; H. saxicola Small
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Ecology

Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Pale-Leaved Sunflower in Illinois

Helianthus strumosus (Pale-Leaved Sunflower)
(Bees collect pollen or suck nectar; flies and beetles feed on pollen or suck nectar; other insects suck nectar; observations are from Graenicher, Robertson, Krombein et al., and Swengel & Swengel as indicated below)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp (Gr); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus centralis sn cp (Gr), Bombus griseocallis sn (Rb, Gr), Bombus pensylvanica sn cp (Gr), Bombus ternarius sn cp (Gr), Bombus terricola sn cp (Gr), Bombus vagans sn cp (Gr), Psithyrus citrinus sn (Gr); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp (Rb, Gr); Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Triepeolus concavus sn (Rb), Triepeolus cressonii cressonii sn (Rb, Gr), Triepeolus donatus sn (Gr), Triepeolus pectoralis sn (Gr); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes agilis sn cp olg (Gr), Melissodes desponsa sn (Gr), Melissodes rustica sn (Gr), Melissodes trinodis sn cp (Gr), Svastra obliqua obliqua sn cp fq (Rb); Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada graenicheri sn (Gr), Nomada vincta sn (Gr); Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginica sn cp (Gr); Megachilidae (Anthidinini): Paranthidium jugatoria sn cp (Gr, Kr); Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys funeraria sn (Gr), Coelioxys modesta sn (Gr), Coelioxys octodentata sn (Gr), Coelioxys rufitarsis rufitarsis sn (Gr), Coelioxys sayi sn (Gr), Coelioxys texana sn (Gr); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn cp (Gr), Megachile centuncularis sn cp (Gr), Megachilie latimanus sn cp (Gr), Megachile mendica sn cp (Gr), Megachile petulans sn (Rb), Megachile pugnatus sn cp (Gr); Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis cylindricus sn cp (Gr), Hoplitis pilosifrons sn cp (Gr); Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades carinatum sn cp (Gr)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn (Gr), Agapostemon virescens sn cp (Gr), Augochlorella striata sn cp (Gr), Halictius confusus sn cp (Gr), Halictus rubicunda sn cp (Gr), Lasioglossum albipennis sn (Gr), Lasioglossum coriaceus sn cp (Gr), Lasioglossum pectoralis sn cp (Gr); Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena accepta sn cp fq olg (Rb, Kr), Andrena aliciae sn cp olg (Gr, Kr), Andrena chromotricha sn cp (Gr), Andrena helianthi sn cp olg (Gr), Andrena peckhami sn cp (Gr); Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn (Gr), Heterosarus labrosiformis labrosiformis sn (Rb)

Wasps
Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Bembix americana (Gr); Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Ectemnius maculosus (Gr); Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Philanthus bilunatus (Gr); Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi (Gr), Ammophila nigricans (Rb); Vespidae: Dolichovespula arenaria (Gr); Vespidae (Eumeninae): Ancistrocerus antilope (Gr)

Flies
Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa decora (Gr), Exoprosopa fascipennis (Gr), Poecilanthrax halcyon sn (Rb, Gr), Poecilognathus punctipennis (Gr), Sparnopolius confusus sn (Rb, Gr), Systoechus vulgaris sn (Rb, Gr); Stratiomyidae: Stratiomys normula sn (Gr); Conopidae: Zodion fulvifrons (Gr); Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua (Gr), Eristalis anthophorina (Gr), Eristalis dimidiatus (Gr), Eristalis flavipes (Gr), Eristalis tenax (Gr), Eristalis transversus (Gr), Sericomyia militaris (Gr), Syritta pipiens (Gr), Syrphus ribesii (Gr), Toxomerus geminatus (Gr), Toxomerus marginatus (Gr), Tropidia quadrata (Gr); Milichiidae: Eusiphona mira (Gr); Anthomyiidae: Anthomyia leucostoma (Gr); Calliphoridae: Lucilia illustris (Gr), Phormia regina (Gr); Tachinidae: Mochlosoma sp. sn (Gr), Tachinomyia panaetius sn (Gr)

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Chlosyne nycteis (Rb), Danaus plexippus (Gr), Limenitis arthemis astyanax (Gr), Phyciodes tharos (Gr), Speyeria cybele (Gr), Vanessa atalanta (Gr), Vanessa virginiensis (Gr); Pieridae: Colias philodice (Rb, Gr), Pieris rapae (Gr); Lycaenidae: Celastrina argiolus (Gr), Lycaeides melissa samuelis (Sw)

Moths
Noctuidae: Anagrapha falcifera (Gr), Feltia jaculifera (Gr), Mythimna unipuncta (Gr)

Beetles
Buprestidae: Acmaeodera pulchella fp (Gr); Meloidae: Epicauta pensylvanica (Gr); Mordellidae: Mordellistena comata (Gr)

Plant Bugs
Miridae: Adelphocoris rapidus (Gr), Lygus lineolaris (Gr)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Helianthus strumosus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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Notes

Comments

Helianthus strumosus is variable, particularly for leaf shape and indument; sufficient study has not been undertaken to evaluate whether regional forms deserve taxonomic recognition. Hybridization with other polyploids, including H. decapetalus, H. hirsutus, and H. tuberosus, further complicates the situation. It differs from H. tuberosus in having glabrous (or glabrate) stems and in lacking tubers.
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