Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Plantain-Leaved Pussytoes can be readily distinguished from Antennaria neglecta (Field Pussytoes) by its basal leaves. The latter has basal leaves that are single-veined and more narrow. Field Pussytoes is also more typical of open habitats, rather than woodland areas. Some authorities state that these plants are wind-pollinated, while others emphasize the role of insects in cross-pollination. Return
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Description

This native perennial plant is up to 6" tall (rarely taller), consisting of a basal rosette of leaves and an erect stem bearing the inflorescence. Species in this genus are dioecious, with individual plants bearing either staminate or pistallate flowers. The basal leaves are up to 4" long and 2" across. They have long petioles and are obovate (spoon-like) in shape, with smooth margins. There are 3-5 conspicuious veins on their upper surface, while their lower surface is densely hairly. The central stem is covered with numerous white hairs. Sparse alternate leaves clasp this stem, which are lanceolate and greatly reduced in size. At the apex is a small cluster of about 5-6 pistillate or staminate flowerheads. Each head is about ¼–½" long, and has a fluffy white appearance. There is no noticeable floral scent. The flowers are normally pollinated by wind or insects, but are also capable of self-pollination. The blooming period occurs during mid- to late spring and lasts about 3 weeks. The achenes develop into small brown nutlets with white resinous dots, to which small tufts of white hairs are attached. They are distributed by the wind. The flower-bearing part of the plant dies down during the summer, but the rosette of basal leaves persists. Occasionally, stolons emerge from the basal rosette that develop plantlets a short distance from the mother plant. There is a strong tendency to form colonies, sometimes consisting of all male or female plants. This is partly the result of vegetative reproduction, and partly the result of allelopathic chemicals that inhibit the germination and development of neighboring plants.
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Plantain-Leaved Pussytoes has been reported in most of the counties in Illinois (see Distribution Map). This is a fairly common plant, although easy to overlook when it isn't in bloom. Habitats include mesic to dry black soil prairies, openings in upland forests, thickets, bluffs, limestone glades, pastures, and abandoned fields. It usually doesn't stray far from wooded habitats.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Dioecious. Plants 6.5–20(–25) cm. Stolons 2.5–7.5 cm (mostly ascending when young). Basal leaves (petiolate) 3–5(–7)-nerved, obovate to suborbiculate, 35–75 × 15–35 mm, tips minutely mucronate, abaxially tomentose, adaxially green-glabrescent to gray-pubescent. Cauline leaves linear, 6.5–35 mm, distal flagged. Heads 4–17(–30) in tight corymbiform arrays. Involucres: staminate 5–7(–8) mm; pistillate 5–7 mm. Phyllaries distally white. Corollas: staminate 2–3.5 mm; pistillate 3–4 mm. Cypselae 0.5–1.6 mm, slightly papillate; pappi: staminate 2.5–4 mm; pistillate 3.5–5.5 mm. 2n = 28.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Gnaphalium plantaginifolium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 850. 1753; Antennaria caroliniana Rydberg; A. decipiens Greene; A. denikeana B. Boivin; A. nemoralis Greene; A. pinetorum Greene; A. plantaginifolia var. petiolata (Fernald) A. Heller
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Type Information

Holotype for Antennaria pinetorum Greene
Catalog Number: US 355635
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): T. H. Kearney
Year Collected: 1898
Locality: Near Norfolk., Portsmouth, Virginia, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Greene, E. L. 1911. Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 147.
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Type collection for Antennaria nemoralis Greene
Catalog Number: US 345777
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. Ruth
Year Collected: 1898
Locality: Knoxville., Tennessee, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Greene, E. L. 1899. Pittonia. 4: 41.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Plantain-Leaved Pussytoes has been reported in most of the counties in Illinois (see Distribution Map). This is a fairly common plant, although easy to overlook when it isn't in bloom. Habitats include mesic to dry black soil prairies, openings in upland forests, thickets, bluffs, limestone glades, pastures, and abandoned fields. It usually doesn't stray far from wooded habitats.
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Associations

Faunal Associations

The flowers are visited primarily by small bees and flies. Among the bees, this includes Andrenid bees, Halictid bees, and Nomadine Cuckoo bees. Fly visitors consist primarily of Syrphid flies, and to a lesser extent Flesh flies, Blow flies, Muscid flies, and others. The caterpillars of the butterfly Vanessa virginiensis (American Painted Lady) feed on the foliage. To a limited extent, the Bobwhite eats the seeds, while the White-Tailed Deer and Cottontail Rabbit browse on the foliage.
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Flower-Visiting Insects of Plantain-Leaved Pussytoes in Illinois

Antennaria plantaginifolia (Plantain-Leaved Pussytoes)
(on staminate flowers, Halictid bees suck nectar or collect pollen, while beetles feed on pollen, as indicated below; other insects suck only nectar on staminate flowers; on pistillate flowers, all insects suck nectar; insect activity is unspecified when the flower gender is unknown; depending on the authority, this plant is either insect- or wind-pollinated; Antennaria parlinii & Antennaria fallax of some authors can be considered varieties of Plantain-Leaved Pussytoes; most observations are from Robertson, otherwise they are from Moure & Hurd, Evans, and MacRae as indicated below)

On staminate flowers:

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus pensylvanica sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina calcarata sn, Ceratina dupla dupla sn fq; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada cressonii sn, Nomada ovatus sn fq, Nomada sayi sn fq; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Osmia pumila sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella aurata sn cp fq, Augochlorella striata sn fq, Halictus confusus sn cp fq, Halictus ligatus sn cp fq, Halictus rubicunda sn fq, Lasioglossum foxii sn cp, Lasioglossum imitatus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn cp, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum zephyrus sn; Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes antennariae sn, Sphecodes minor sn; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena andrenoides andrenoides sn, Andrena imitatrix imitatrix sn

Flies
Syrphidae: Eristalinus aeneus, Orthonevra nitida, Paragus tibialis, Platycheirus hyperboreus, Platycheirus quadratus, Sphaerophoria contiqua fq, Toxomerus geminatus, Toxomerus marginatus fq icp; Empidae: Empis otiosa, Rhamphomyia priapulus; Sarcophagidae: Amobia aurifrons, Helicobia rapax, Ravinia anxia; Calliphoridae: Cynomya cadaverina, Lucilia illustris, Lucilia sericata; Muscidae: Limnophora narona, Morellia micans, Neomyia cornicina; Chloropidae: Diplotoxa versicolor; Anthomyiidae: Delia platura

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Vanessa virginiensis; Lycaenidae: Celastrina argiolus; Pieridae: Colias philodice

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Erynnis juvenalis

Moths
Noctuidae: Caenurgina erechtea

Beetles
Dermestidae: Anthrenus scrophulariae fp; Oedemeridae: Asclera ruficollis fp

On pistillate flowers:

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina calcarata, Ceratina dupla dupla fq; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada integerrima, Nomada luteola, Nomada obliterata, Nomada ovatus fq, Nomada sayi fq

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella aurata fq, Augochlorella striata fq, Halictus confusus fq, Halictus ligatus fq, Halictus rubicunda fq; Lasioglossum cinctipes, Lasioglossum imitatus fq, Lasioglossum pectoralis, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus, Lasioglossum pruinosus, Lasioglossum versatus fq, Lasioglossum zephyrus; Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes cressonii, Sphecodes minor; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena andrenoides andrenoides, Andrena erythrogaster, Andrena forbesii, Andrena illinoiensis, Andrena imitatrix imitatrix, Andrena miserabilis bipunctata, Andrena nigrae, Andrena salictaria fq, Andrena sayi

Wasps
Chrysididae: Chrysura pacifica

Flies
Syrphidae: Paragus bicolor, Sphaerophoria contiqua fq, Toxomerus marginatus fq icp; Empidae: Rhamphomyia priapulus; Bombyliidae: Bombylius major; Tachinidae: Chetogena claripennis; Calliphoridae: Lucilia illustris, Lucilia sericata; Muscidae: Neomyia cornicina; Anthomyiidae: Delia platura; Fanniidae: Fannia manicata

Butterflies
Lycaenidae: Celastrina argiolus; Pieridae: Colias philodice

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Erynnis brizo

Flower gender unspecified:

Bees (long-tongued)
Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla (Ev)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella persimilis (MH), Augochlorella striata (MH), Halictus confusus (Ev, MH), Halictus ligatus (MH), Halictus rubicunda (Ev, MH), Lasioglossum cinctipes (MH), Lasioglossum coriaceus (Ev), Lasioglossum foxii (MH), Lasioglossum imitatus (MH), Lasioglossum pectoralis (Ev, MH), Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus (Ev, MH), Lasioglossum pruinosus (MH), Lasioglossum versatus (MH), Lasioglossum zephyrus (MH); Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes antennariae (MH), Sphecodes cressonii (MH), Sphecodes minor (MH) Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena crataegi (Ev)

Beetles
Buprestidae: Acmaeodera neglecta (McR)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Antennaria plantaginifolia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full or partial sun, and average to dry conditions. This plant often flourishes in poor soil, which can contain sand, rocky material, or clay. This is because there is less competion from taller plants. The new growth during the spring doesn't persist long enough to be bothered by disease, although the semi-evergreen basal leaves often become discolored and withered.
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Wikipedia

Antennaria plantaginifolia

Antennaria plantaginifolia (known by the common names Plantain Leaf Pussytoes and Woman's Tobacco) is a perennial forb native to the eastern United States,[2] that produces cream colored composite flowers in spring.

Description[edit]

Botanical illustration of Antennaria plantaginifolia (1913)

Antennaria plantaginifolia is rarely more than 15 centimeters tall, consisting of a basal rosette, and an erect stem which bears the inflorescence, a tight flat topped cluster of 4 to 17 fuzzy flower heads composed exclusively of disk flowers, with no ray flowers. The basal leaves are petiolate, oval to roundish, 3.5 to 7.5 centimeters long and 1.5 to 3.5 centimeters wide, with 3 to 7 prominent veins. The under side of the leaves is covered in thick silvery hair. Additional leaves along the stem are lanceolate and smaller. The fruit are cypselae with a pappus of white bristles.

Male (staminate) flower

Antennaria plantaginifolia is dioecious, the male and female flowers are borne on separate plants. It often forms colonies, sometimes consisting entirely of male or female plants. It does so in part through vegetative reproduction. Stolons emerging from the basal rosette take root and develop into new plants.[3][4][5][6][7]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Antennaria plantaginifolia is widely distributed in the eastern United States, although local distribution may be spotty. It has been recorded in Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Washington, D.C., Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, and West Virginia.[2] In Virginia, it grows in habitats including dry forests, barrens, and meadows.[8] The presence of this species is dependent on appropriate habitat, and it may be eliminated from an area by development, changes in land use, or competition with invasive species.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richardson - The Plant List". Retrieved January 25, 2014.  The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. Published on the Internet; http://www.theplantlist.org/
  2. ^ a b "Plants Profile for Antennaria plantaginifolia (woman's tobacco)". Retrieved February 5, 2014.  USDA, NRCS. 2014. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.
  3. ^ "Antennaria plantaginifolia (plantain-leaved pussytoes): Go Botany". Retrieved February 5, 2014.  Copyright © 2011-2013 New England Wild Flower Society (http://www.newenglandwild.org)
  4. ^ Britton, Nathaniel Lord & Brown, Addison (1913). An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions: From Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern Boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean Westward to the 102d Meridian, Volume 3., p. 451. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  5. ^ "Plantain-leaved Pussytoes (Antennaria plantaginifolia)". Retrieved February 5, 2014.  © 2005 Connecticut Botanical Society. (http://www.ct-botanical-society.org)
  6. ^ "Antennaria plantaginifolia in Flora of North America @ efloras.org". Retrieved February 5, 2014.  'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet (http://www.efloras.org). Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  7. ^ "Plantain-Leaved Pussytoes (Antennaria plantaginifolia)". Retrieved February 5, 2014.  Copyright © 2002-2012 Dr. John Hilty. Illinois Wildflowers (http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info)
  8. ^ "Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora | Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richards.". Retrieved January 25, 2014.  Virginia Botanical Associates. (2014). Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora (http://www.vaplantatlas.org). c/o Virginia Botanical Associates, Blacksburg.
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Notes

Comments

Antennaria plantaginifolia is a diploid progenitor of the A. parlinii complex and is similar to that species except for smaller heads and adaxially gray-pubescent basal leaves (R. J. Bayer and G. L. Stebbins 1982; Bayer 1985b; Bayer and D. J. Crawford 1986). It is a diploid ancestor of the A. howellii complex. It is found in the Appalachian region; disjunct populations occur in the driftless area of Wisconsin and Minnesota (Bayer and Stebbins).
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