Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Field Pussytoes is similar to Antennaria plantaginifolia (Plantain-Leaved Pussytoes), but the latter has wider basal leaves with 3 prominent veins. These are both cute-looking little plants that could be grown in rock gardens for spring bloom. Return
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Description

This native perennial plant is up to 1' tall, but more commonly ½' or less. It consists of a rosette of basal leaves, which sometimes produces an inflorescence on a short stalk during the spring. The basal leaves are up to 2" long and ½" across; they are oblanceolate, with smooth margins. There is a single prominent vein on the upper surface of each basal leaf, while the lower surface is white and hairy. There are small alternate leaves along the pubescent flowering stalk; they are narrowly lanceolate or linear. At the top of each stalk, a plant produces a few flowerheads about 1/3" long that are either staminate or pistillate. These flowerheads resemble compact tufts of white hair. The blooming period occurs from mid- to late spring and lasts about 3 weeks. There is no noticeable floral scent. The flowerheads are quickly replaced by achenes with small tufts of white hair, which are distributed by the wind. Field Pussytoes spread by means of horizontal stolons that are hairy and have small alternate leaves that are narrowly lanceolate or linear. These stolons develop plantlets that root in the ground, and resemble the mother plant. The root system consists of a central taproot. This plant often forms small colonies.
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Field Pussytoes occurs occasionally in northern and central Illinois; it is less common in southern Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include mesic to dry black soil prairies, clay prairies, slopes of open woodlands, dry meadows in woodland areas, savannas, shale glades, eroded clay banks, pastures, abandoned fields, and roadsides. This plant is allelopathic, and tends to reduce the height of neighboring grasses and forbs. It is more commonly found in prairies than Antennaria plantaginifolia (Plantain-Leaved Pussytoes). Faunal Associations
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Occurs from Newfoundland and Quebec west to Montana and south to Colorado, Oklahoma, Ohio, and Pennsylvania.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Dioecious. Plants 4–25 cm. Stolons 2.5–18 cm. Basal leaves: 1-nerved, narrowly spatulate to cuneate-oblanceolate, 15–65 × 6–18 mm, tips mucronate, faces abaxially tomentose, adaxially gray-pubescent (green-glabrescent with age). Cauline leaves linear, 1.5–25 mm, distal flagged. Heads (1–)2–8 in corymbiform to spiciform or racemiform arrays. Involucres: staminate 4–7 mm; pistillate 6–10 mm. Phyllaries distally white. Corollas: staminate 2.7–5 mm; pistillate 4.5–6.5(–7) mm. Cypselae 0.9–1.4 mm, minutely papillate; pappi: staminate 3.5–6.5 mm; pistillate 6–8.5(–9.5) mm. 2n = 28.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Antennaria athabascensis Greene; A. campestris Rydberg; A. campestris var. athabascensis (Greene) B. Boivin; A. chelonica Lunell; A. erosa Greene; A. howellii Greene var. athabascensis (Greene) B. Boivin; A. howellii var. campestris (Rydberg) B. Boivin; A. longifolia Greene; A. lunellii Greene; A. nebrascensis Greene; A. neglecta Greene var. athabascensis (Greene) Roy L. Taylor & MacBryde; A. neglecta var. campestris (Rydberg) Steyermark; A. neglecta var. simplex Peck; A. parvula Greene; A. wilsonii Greene
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Type Information

Syntype for Antennaria campestris Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 211698
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): P. A. Rydberg
Year Collected: 1892
Locality: Black Hills., South Dakota, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Rydberg, P. A. 1897. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 24 (6): 304.
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Holotype for Antennaria athabascensis Greene
Catalog Number: US 421674
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Preble
Year Collected: 1903
Locality: Fort Chippewyan., Athabasca, Northwest Territories, Canada, North America
  • Holotype: Greene, E. L. 1906. Ottawa Naturalist. 19: 197.
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Isolectotype for Antennaria neglecta Greene
Catalog Number: US 784358
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined; Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Sex/Stage: ; Flowering
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. L. Greene
Year Collected: 1897
Locality: Catholic University grounds, District of Columbia, United States, North America
  • Isolectotype: Greene, E. L. 1897. Pittonia. 3: 173.; Bayer, R. J. & Stebbins, G. L. 1982. Syst. Bot. 7: 308.
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Isolectotype for Antennaria neglecta Greene
Catalog Number: US 291404
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined; Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Sex/Stage: ; Flowering
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. L. Greene
Year Collected: 1897
Locality: Catholic University grounds, District of Columbia, United States, North America
  • Isolectotype: Greene, E. L. 1897. Pittonia. 3: 173.; Bayer, R. J. & Stebbins, G. L. 1982. Syst. Bot. 7: 308.
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Possible syntype for Antennaria neglecta Greene
Catalog Number: US 310518
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined; Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. L. Pollard
Year Collected: 1895
Locality: District of Columbia and vicinity. Va. shore above Aqueduct Bridge., Virginia, United States, North America
  • Possible syntype: Greene, E. L. 1897. Pittonia. 3: 173.; Bayer, R. J. & Stebbins, G. L. 1982. Syst. Bot. 7: 308.
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Lectotype for Antennaria neglecta Greene
Catalog Number: US 362136
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined; Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): B. F. Bush
Year Collected: 1899
Locality: Grain Valley., Missouri, United States, North America
  • Lectotype: Greene, E. L. 1911. Amer. Midl. Naturalist. 2: 79.; Bayer, R. & Stebbins, G. L. 1982. Syst. Bot. 7: 308.
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Lectotype for Antennaria neglecta Greene
Catalog Number: US 317207
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined; Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): W. Forwood
Year Collected: 1887
Locality: Black Hills, near Ft. Meade., Custer, South Dakota, United States, North America
  • Lectotype: Greene, E. L. 1911. Amer. Midl. Naturalist. 2: 81.; Bayer, R. & Stebbins, G. L. 1982. Syst. Bot. 7: 309.
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Lectotype for Antennaria neglecta Greene
Catalog Number: US 607850
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined; Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Lunell
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: Leeds., Benson, North Dakota, United States, North America
  • Lectotype: Greene, E. L. 1911. Amer. Midl. Naturalist. 2: 81.; Bayer, R. & Stebbins, G. L. 1982. Syst. Bot. 7: 309.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Field Pussytoes occurs occasionally in northern and central Illinois; it is less common in southern Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include mesic to dry black soil prairies, clay prairies, slopes of open woodlands, dry meadows in woodland areas, savannas, shale glades, eroded clay banks, pastures, abandoned fields, and roadsides. This plant is allelopathic, and tends to reduce the height of neighboring grasses and forbs. It is more commonly found in prairies than Antennaria plantaginifolia (Plantain-Leaved Pussytoes). Faunal Associations
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Field Pussytoes in Illinois

Antennaria neglecta (Field Pussytoes)
(Bees collect pollen or suck nectar; flies feed on pollen or suck nectar; other insects suck nectar; flower gender is unspecified for visitors; this plant can be insect-pollinated or wind-pollinated; most observations are from Graenicher, otherwise they are from Evans as indicated below)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp (Gr, Ev); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla (Ev); Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada sayi sn, Nomada sphaerogaster sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn, Augochlorella striata sn cp, Augochloropsis metallica metallica (Ev), Halictus confusus sn cp (Ev, Gr), Halictus ligatus sn cp, Halictus rubicunda sn cp (Ev, Gr), Halictus sp. (Lasioglossum sp.) sn, Lasioglossum albipennis sn cp, Lasioglossum cinctipes sn cp, Lasioglossum foxii sn, Lasioglossum imitatus sn cp, Lasioglossum pectoralis (Ev), Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus (Ev), Lasioglossum versatus sn cp, Lasioglossum zephyrus sn cp; Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes clematidis sn, Sphecodes cressonii sn, Sphecodes minor sn; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena carlini sn cp, Andrena crataegi (Ev), Andrena cressonii sn cp, Andrena erythrogaster sn, Andrena forbesii sn cp, Andrena hippotes sn, Andrena milwaukeensis sn, Andrena miserabilis sn, Andrena nasonii sn, Andrena sigmundi sn, Andrena vicina sn cp

Wasps
Vespidae: Dolichovespula arenaria

Flies
Bombyliidae: Bombylius major; Syrphidae: Eristalinus aeneus, Eristalis anthophorina, Eristalis dimidiatus, Eristalis transversus, Eupeodes americanus, Eupeodes volucris, Helophilus bilinearis, Helophilus chrysostomus, Helophilus fasciatus, Melanostoma mellinum, Platycheirus obscurus; Stratiomyidae: Odontomyia pubescens; Piophilidae: Prochyliza xanthostoma; Sepsidae: Themira putris; Chloropidae: Elachiptera nigriceps; Scathophagidae: Scathophaga furcata; Anthomyiidae: Delia platura; Calliphoridae: Calliphora vicina, Phormia regina, Pollenia rudis; Muscidae: Morellia micans, Neomyia cornicina; Sarcophagidae: Helicobia rapax; Tachinidae: Gonia capitata, Panzeria aldrichi, Tachinomyia panaetius

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Polygonia comma, Vanessa atalanta, Vanessa virginiensis

Beetles
Coccinellidae: Coleomegilla maculata sn; Melyridae: Malachius thevenetti sn

Plant Bugs
Miridae: Cimex ruficornis; Thyreocoridae: Corimelaena pulicarius

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Antennaria neglecta

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is partial or full sun, and mesic to dry conditions. This plant flourishes in soil that is rocky or contains clay; it also grows readily in fertile loam. Most of the growth and development occurs during the spring, before pests and disease become troublesome.
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Notes

Comments

Antennaria neglecta is a sexual progenitor of both the A. howellii and A. parvifolia polyploid complexes and has one of the more widespread ranges among the amphimictic species in the genus in North America. Amphimicts generally have small ranges compared to those of the polyploid agamic complexes derived from them. Characteristic features of A. neglecta are its lashlike stolons that bear reduced leaves (except at the ends), flags on the distal cauline leaves, and basal leaves that are green-glabrescent with age (R. J. Bayer and G. L. Stebbins 1982).
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