Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (1) (learn more)

Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This native perennial plant is 3-8' tall; it branches occasionally in the upper half. The stems are light green, terete, usually glabrous, and sometimes glaucous. The alternate leaves are up to 12" long and 12" across, becoming gradually smaller as they ascend the stems. These leaves spread outward from their stems on narrowly winged petioles and they have a tendency to droop. The lower to middle leaves have 3-7 large lobes and smooth to coarsely dentate margins. The lobes of these leaves are elliptic to ovate in shape; the terminal lobes of some leaves are subdivided into 2 smaller lobes. Sometimes the lower leaves are pinnate with a pair of basal leaflets and a lobed terminal leaflet. The uppermost leaves on the flowering stalks are much smaller in size and lanceolate to ovate in shape; they lack lobes. The upper leaf surface is dark green and hairless to sparingly short-hairy, while the lower leaf surface is pale-medium green and glabrous to sparingly hairy. The upper stems terminate in either individual or cyme-like clusters of flowerheads on stalks 2" or more in length. Each flowerhead spans about 2-3" across; it has a daisy-like structure consisting of a globoid central cone that is surrounded by 6-12 ray florets. The central cone is light green while immature, but it later becomes yellow and resembles a pincushion to some extent because of the corollas of its tubular disk florets. The petaloid rays surrounding the central cone are yellow, oblong in shape, and drooping. The base of each flowerhead is defined by 8-15 floral bracts (phyllaries); these bracts are light green, oblong-ovate in shape, and hairless to hairy. The blooming period occurs from mid-summer to early fall and lasts about 1-2 months. Each disk floret is replaced by an oblongoid achene (3-4.5 mm. in length) that has a crown of tiny blunt teeth at its apex. The root system is fibrous and rhizomatous. Clonal colonies of plants are often formed from the long rhizomes. Cultivation
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Description

Linnaeus first descriped Rudbeckia laciniata in Species Plantarum in 1753. In 1884, Asa Gray described variety humilis in Synoptical Flora of North America, and var. heterophylla was added by M.L. Fernald and B.G. Schubert in Rhodora in 1948. Shortly thereafter, Cronquist described var. ampla in Vascular Plants of the Northwest, in 1955. Finally, Robert E. Perdue, Jr. added the last variety, var. bipinnata, in an article in Rhodora in 1962. Thus, the five varieties of R. laciniata are ampla, the Rocky Mountain cutleaf coneflower, bipinnata, the Northeastern cutleaf coneflower, humilis, the Southeastern cutleaf coneflower, heterophylla, the Florida coneflower, and laciniata.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Hamilton, Hayley

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Cutleaf Coneflower is widely distributed and occasional to locally common in most areas of Illinois (see Distribution Map), where it is native. Habitats include open bottomland forests, moist meadows in wooded areas, woodland borders, moist thickets, sloughs in partially shaded areas, low areas along rivers, partially shaded river banks, calcareous seeps, margins of poorly drained fields, and pastures. Occasionally, this species is grown in flower gardens. It prefers partially shaded areas that are poorly drained and may be prone to occasional flooding during the spring. Faunal Associations
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Rudbeckia laciniata can be found throughout most of the U.S., excluding the Northwest, and the southern reaches of Canada. Var. ampla grows west of the Great Plains and in British Columbia, and var. laciniata can be found everywhere east of ampla's range. The other varieties have very small, localized distributions. Var. bipinnata grows from Maryland and Pennsylvania up through New England, except for Maine and Vermont. Var. humilis grows from Virginia south to Georgia and west to Alabama and Tennessee, and var. heterophylla grows only in Levy County, Florida. (Urbatsch & Cox, 2006.)

For more information, see the map provided by Flora of North America.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Hamilton, Hayley

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Key taken from Flora of North America. (Urbatsch & Cox, 2006.)

1. Receptacles ovoid; discs (17-)20-30 mm; w of Great Plains…………………

……………………………………………7a. Rudbeckia laciniata var. ampla

1. Receptacles globose or hemispheric; discs 10-20 mm; Great Plains and e United

States.

2. Basal and proximal cauline leaves not lobed, adaxial faces moderately to

densely hairy; Levy County, Florida………………………………………

………………………………….7d. Rudbeckia laciniata var. heterophylla

2. Basal and proximal cauline leaves lobed, adaxial leaf faces sparsely hairy or

Glabrous; e North America (not Levy County, Florida).

3. Proximal leaves usually with 0, 3, or 5 lobes; se United States………….

……………………………………...7c. Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata

3. Proximal leaves usually 1-2-pinnatifid or with 5-11 lobes; e North America

(not se United States).

4. Proximal cauline leaves 2-pinnatifid, mid cauline leaves 5-11 lobed;

paleae 3.1-4.1 mm; cypselae 3.5-4 mm; pappi 0.7-1.5 mm……………

………………………………….7b. Rudbeckia laciniata var. bipinnata

4. Proximal cauline leaves pinnatifid, mid cauline leaves 5-9 lobed; paleae

4.4-6.1 mm; cypselae 4.2-6 mm; pappi 0.1-0.7 mm…………………….

…………………………………7e. Rudbeckia laciniata var. laciniata

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Urbatsch, Lowell; Cox, Patricia

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Perennials, 50–300 cm (rhizomes often elongate, slender, plants colonial, roots fibrous). Leaves green, blades broadly ovate to lanceolate, all but distalmost 1–2-pinnatifid or pinnately compound, leaflets/lobes 3–11, bases cuneate to attenuate or cordate, margins entire or dentate, apices acute to acuminate, faces glabrous or hairy (sometimes with translucent patches); basal (often withering before flowering) petiolate, 15–50 × 10–25 cm; cauline petiolate or sessile, mostly lobed to pinnatifid, sometimes not lobed, 8–40 × 3–20 cm. Heads (2–25) in loose, corymbiform arrays. Phyllaries to 2 cm (8–15, ovate to lanceolate, margins mostly ciliate, glabrous or hairy). Receptacles hemispheric or ovoid to globose; paleae 3–7 mm, apices (at least of proximal) truncate or rounded, abaxial tips densely hairy. Ray florets 8–12; laminae elliptic to oblanceolate, 15–50 × 4–14 mm, abaxially hairy. Discs 9–30 × 10–23 mm. Disc florets 150–300+; corollas yellow to yellowish green (lobes yellow), 3.5–5 mm; style branches 1–1.5 mm, apices acute to rounded. Cypselae 3–4.5 mm; pappi coroniform or of 4 scales, to 1.5 mm.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

"Perennials, 50–300 cm (rhizomes often elongate, slender, plants colonial, roots fibrous). Leaves green, blades broadly ovate to lanceolate, all but distalmost 1–2-pinnatifid or pinnately compound, leaflets/lobes 3–11, bases cuneate to attenuate or cordate, margins entire or dentate, apices acute to acuminate, faces glabrous or hairy (sometimes with translucent patches); basal (often withering before flowering) petiolate, 15–50 × 10–25 cm; cauline petiolate or sessile, mostly lobed to pinnatifid, sometimes not lobed, 8–40 × 3–20 cm. Heads (2–25) in loose, corymbiform arrays. Phyllaries to 2 cm (8–15, ovate to lanceolate, margins mostly ciliate, glabrous or hairy). Receptacles hemispheric or ovoid to globose; paleae 3–7 mm, apices (at least of proximal) truncate or rounded, abaxial tips densely hairy. Ray florets 8–12; laminae elliptic to oblanceolate, 15–50 × 4–14 mm, abaxially hairy. Discs 9–30 × 10–23 mm. Disc florets 150–300+; corollas yellow to yellowish green (lobes yellow), 3.5–5 mm; style branches 1–1.5 mm, apices acute to rounded. Cypselae 3–4.5 mm; pappi coroniform or of 4 scales, to 1.5 mm."

Urbatsch, Lowell E. and Patricia B. Cox. “Rudbeckia” in Flora of North America, Vol. 21, p. 49 Oxford University Press, Inc., New York, NY. 2006.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Urbatsch, Lowell; Cox, Patricia

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Cutleaf Coneflower is widely distributed and occasional to locally common in most areas of Illinois (see Distribution Map), where it is native. Habitats include open bottomland forests, moist meadows in wooded areas, woodland borders, moist thickets, sloughs in partially shaded areas, low areas along rivers, partially shaded river banks, calcareous seeps, margins of poorly drained fields, and pastures. Occasionally, this species is grown in flower gardens. It prefers partially shaded areas that are poorly drained and may be prone to occasional flooding during the spring. Faunal Associations
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wet habitats along streams and woods

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Hamilton, Hayley

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Autotroph

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Hamilton, Hayley

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Cut-Leaved Coneflower in Illinois

Rudbeckia laciniata (Cut-Leaved Coneflower)
(Bees collect pollen or suck nectar; flies feed on pollen or suck nectar; other insects suck nectar; some observations are from Graenicher and Krombein et al. as indicated below, otherwise they are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp fq (Rb, Gr); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus centralis sn (Gr), Bombus fraternus sn, Bombus griseocallis sn cp (Rb, Gr), Bombus impatiens sn, Bombus penyslvanica sn (Rb, Gr), Bombus ternarius sn (Gr), Bombus vagans sn cp (Gr), Psithyrus variabilis sn (Rb, Gr); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn (Rb, Gr), Ceratina calcarata sn; Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus autumnalis sn fq, Triepeolus donatus sn (Rb, Gr), Triepeolus pectoralis sn fq; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes agilis sn (Gr), Melissodes coloradensis sn, Melissodes dentiventris sn, Melissodes rustica sn fq, Melissodes trinodis sn cp fq (Rb, Gr), Svastra obliqua obliqua sn cp; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile centuncularis sn (Gr), Megachile latimanus sn cp (Gr), Megachile petulans sn cp; Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades leavitti sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella striata sn (Gr), Halictus confusus sn (Gr), Halictus ligatus sn cp fq, Halictus rubicunda (MH), Lasioglossum coriaceus sn (Gr), Lasioglossum forbesii sn cp (Gr), Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes compactus sn cp fq; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena aliciae sn cp fq (Rb, Gr), Andrena helianthi (Kr); Andrenidae (Panurginae): Heterosarus albitarsis sn cp, Heterosarus labrosiformis labrosiformis sn cp fq, Heterosarus rudbeckiae sn cp fq olg, Pseudopanurgus rugosus sn

Wasps
Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Bembix americana (Rb, Gr); Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi (Rb, Gr), Ammophila nigricans, Eremnophila aureonotata, Sphex pensylvanica (Gr); Scoliidae: Scolia bicincta

Flies
Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua (Gr), Eristalis dimidiatus sn (Rb, Gr), Eristalis transversus sn (Rb, Gr), Syritta pipiens (Gr), Syrphus ribesii fp np, Toxomerus geminatus (Gr); Empidae: Empis clausa sn fq; Milichiidae: Eusiphona mira (Gr); Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa decora sn (Rb, Gr), Exoprosopa fasciata sn, Exoprosopa fascipennis (Gr), Poecilanthrax halcyon (Gr), Poecilognathus punctipennis (Gr), Sparnopolius confusus sn, Systoechus vulgaris sn, Villa alternata sn; Conopidae: Zodion fulvifrons sn; Calliphoridae: Lucilia illustris (Gr); Muscidae: Stomoxys calcitrans (Gr); Tachinidae: Archytas aterrima sn, Spallanzania hesperidarum sn, Tachinomyia panaetius sn fq (Rb, Gr); Sarcophagidae: Sphixapata trilineata sn

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Chlosyne nycteis, Danaus plexippus (Gr), Limenitis arthemis astyanax (Gr), Phyciodes tharos (Gr), Speyeria cybele (Gr), Vanessa virginiensis; Lycaenidae: Celastrina argiolus

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Poanes hobomok pocohantas (Gr), Polites themistocles

Moths
Noctuidae: Feltia jaculifera (Gr), Mythimna unipuncta (Gr); Sesiidae: Cisseps fulvicollis

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous colony of Ramularia hyphomycetous anamorph of Ramularia asteris causes spots on live leaf of Rudbeckia laciniata

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Rudbeckia laciniata plays host to the aphid Uroleucon rudbeckiae. (Service, 1984.) Its nectar and pollen attract a variety of bees, wasps, moths and butterflies. Its leaves are a foodsource for certain caterpillars, but the vegetation may be poisionous to mammalian herbivores. Finches may eat seeds.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Hamilton, Hayley

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diseases and Parasites

Diseases

Corynespora cassiicola is a pathogen responsible for eye-spots and eventual death of the leaves of R. laciniata. (Da Silva, Soares & Barreto, 2005.)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Hamilton, Hayley

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Phenology

Vars. ampla, bipinnata, humilis and laciniata begin flowering in the summertime, but var. heterophylla can start to produce flowers in the spring. Flowering of all varieties continues into the fall. (Urbatsch & Cox, 2006.)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Hamilton, Hayley

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Perennials

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Hamilton, Hayley

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

Several years

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Hamilton, Hayley

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Sexual

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Hamilton, Hayley

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth

Rudbeckia laciniata has a rapid growth rate and can reach heights over 9 feet.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Hamilton, Hayley

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physiology and Cell Biology

Physiology

Although there are no known morphological differences between Ozone-sensitive and insensitive types, the stomatal response is significantly lower in sensitive plants. (Grulke, Neufeld, Davison, Roberts & Chappelka, 2006).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Hamilton, Hayley

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cell Biology

Cytology

Rudbeckia laciniata has been reported as having chromosome numbers of both n=18 and n=19, along with a number of ploidy levels. (Urbatsch, Baldwin & Donoghue, 2000.)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Hamilton, Hayley

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rudbeckia laciniata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Rudbeckia laciniata is listed as a threatened species by the state of Rhode Island. (USDA, 2010.)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Hamilton, Hayley

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Hamilton, Hayley

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Info Flora (CRSF/ZDSF) & Autoren 2005

Supplier: Name It's Source (profile not public)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

First and foremost, Rudbeckia laciniata and its cultivars are grown as ornamentals. The leaves of young plants have been harvested and used as greens in salads.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Hamilton, Hayley

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Risks

Risk Statement

Although poisoning is unlikely, this plant has caused poison by ingestion in the past, specifically in cattle and swine. As a precaution, it is recommended to suppress its growth in grazing areas.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Hamilton, Hayley

Source: Compositae

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Rudbeckia laciniata

Rudbeckia laciniata is a species of flowering plant in the sunflower/daisy family Asteraceae, native to eastern North America, most often found in flood plains and moist soils.[1]

Description[edit]

It is an herbaceous perennial growing up to 3 m (10 ft) tall, with slightly glaucous leaves, and composite flowers in late summer and autumn (fall). The disc flowers are green to yellowish green, while the rays are pale yellow.[2]

Names[edit]

Common names include cutleaf, cutleaf coneflower, goldenglow, green-headed coneflower, tall coneflower and thimbleweed (note that several other plant species are also known as thimbleweed).

The specific epithet laciniata refers to the pinnately divided leaves.[3]

Cultivation[edit]

R. laciniata is widely cultivated in gardens and for cut flowers. Numerous cultivars have been developed, of which 'Herbstsonne' ("Autumn sun") has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[4]

Uses[edit]

Traditionally, the young leaves have been gathered from the wild and eaten in the early spring. They are greatly favored as a potherb (cooked). Though some references state the use of this plant as salad greens (raw),[5] traditional use is as cooked greens.[6][7] This is assumed to be done to remove toxins. However, there is little evidence of their presence. One report cites circumstantial evidence of poisoning to horses, sheep and pigs.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rudbeckia laciniata at USDA PLANTS Database
  2. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  3. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315. 
  4. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Rudbeckia laciniata 'Herbstsonne'". Retrieved 2 June 2013. 
  5. ^ Banks, William. 2004. Plants of the Cherokee. Great Smoky Mts. Assn.: Gatlinburg, Tennessee.
  6. ^ Hamel, Paul; Chiltoskey, Mary U. (1975). Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva Herald Publishing. 
  7. ^ Witthoft, John (1977). "Cherokee Indian Use of Potherbs". Journal of Cherokee Studies 2 (2): 251. 
  8. ^ Kingsbury, J.M. (1964). Poisonous Plants of the United States and Canada. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc. 


Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

Cultivars of Rudbeckia laciniata are grown as ornamentals. The cultivar ‘golden-glow’ is widely planted and occasionally escapes cultivation. Among the varieties traditionally recognized in floristic treatments, vars. ampla and heterophylla are the most distinctive. Detailed investigation may show that the other varieties, from eastern North America, represent broadly intergrading forms that should be subsumed under var. laciniata.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!