Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (6) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

The daisy is a perennial species, which flowers for much of the year (5). The flowers open at dawn and are visited by many small insects (2), they are used by children to make daisy chains (4).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

The humble yet cheerfully attractive daisy is familiar to most as a 'weed' of lawns and a feature of many children's games (4). The small, hairy, spoon-shaped leaves, which are green throughout the year, are arranged in flat, neat rosettes (5). The upturned flower heads look like single flowers, but actually consist of a number of small, tightly packed individual flowers or 'florets'; this arrangement is a type of inflorescence known as a 'capitulum' (6). The flower heads have bright golden-yellow central discs, composed of 'disk florets', which are surrounded by petal-like white 'ray-florets' that often have deep pink or reddish flushes on the underside (2). This species was described as the 'day's eye', by Chaucer and 'the emperice and flour of floures alle' (5).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

Ubiquitous throughout Britain (3). It also occurs throughout Europe and west Asia (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Rhizomes short, erect, herbaceous. Leaves: petioles winged, equaling or longer than blades; blades 6–40 × 4–20 mm, bases ± attenuate, apices rounded. Peduncles lax, (3–)5–15(–20) cm. Phyllaries: margins ciliolate, particularly distally, apices obtuse. Ray corollas 4–8(–11) mm. Disc corollas 1.5 mm. Cypselae 1–2 mm. 2n = 18.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Found in all types of mown, trampled or grazed calcareous and neutral grassland, but thrives best in areas that become fairly wet for some of the year. This species is known chiefly as a weed of lawns, pastureland and roadside verges, but it also occurs on riverbanks, dune-slacks, and lake margins (3).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / spot causer
embedded sorus of Entyloma bellidis causes spots on live leaf of Bellis perennis cv.
Remarks: season: 3

Foodplant / parasite
aecium of Puccinia distincta parasitises live, yellowed leaf of Bellis perennis cv.

Foodplant / parasite
telium of Puccinia lagenophorae parasitises live leaf of Bellis perennis cv.
Other: minor host/prey

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Calycomyza humeralis may be found in leaf-mine of Bellis perennis

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / spot causer
embedded sorus of Entyloma bellidis causes spots on live leaf of Bellis perennis
Remarks: season: 3

Foodplant / parasite
Golovinomyces cichoracearum parasitises live Bellis perennis

Foodplant / miner
larva of Liriomyza orbona mines leaf of Bellis perennis

Foodplant / miner
larva of Liriomyza pusilla mines leaf of Bellis perennis
Other: major host/prey

Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Napomyza bellidis may be found in leaf of Bellis perennis
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Paroxyna producta feeds within capitulum of Bellis perennis
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / parasite
aecium of Puccinia distincta parasitises live ray floret of Bellis perennis

Foodplant / parasite
pycnium of Puccinia obscura parasitises live leaf of Bellis perennis
Remarks: season: 9-12

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous, subepidermal, brown pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria bellidis causes spots on fading leaf of Bellis perennis
Remarks: season: 6-8

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Trupanea stellata feeds within capitulum of Bellis perennis
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Bellis perennis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bellis perennis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 14
Specimens with Barcodes: 23
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Widespread and common (3)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

This species is not threatened.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation

Conservation action is not needed.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Bellis perennis

Bellis perennis is a common European species of daisy, of the Asteraceae family, often considered the archetypal species of that name. Many related plants also share the name "daisy", so to distinguish this species from other daisies it is sometimes qualified as common daisy, lawn daisy or English daisy. Historically, it has also been commonly known as bruisewort and occasionally woundwort (although the common name woundwort is now more closely associated with Stachys (woundworts)). Bellis perennis is native to western, central and northern Europe, but widely naturalised in most temperate regions including the Americas[2][2][3] and Australasia.

Description[edit]

It is an herbaceous perennial plant with short creeping rhizomes and rosettes of small rounded or spoon-shaped leaves that are from 3/4 to 2 inches (approx. 2–5 cm) long and grow flat to the ground. The species habitually colonises lawns, and is difficult to eradicate by mowing - hence the term 'lawn daisy'. Wherever it appears it is often considered an invasive weed.[4]

The flowerheads are composite, in the form of a pseudanthium, consisting of many sessile flowers about 3/4 to 1-1/4 in (approx. 2–3 cm) in diameter, with white ray florets (often tipped red) and yellow disc florets. Each inflorescence is borne on single leafless stems 3/4 - 4 in (approx. 2–10 cm), rarely 6 in (approx. 15 cm) tall. The capitulum, or disc of florets, is surrounded by two rows of green bracts known as "phyllaries".[5]

Cultivation[edit]

B. perennis generally blooms from early to midsummer, although when grown under ideal conditions, they have a very long flowering season and will even produce a few flowers in the middle of mild winters.[6][7]

It can generally be grown in USDA Zones 4 - 8 (i.e. where minimum temperatures are above −30 °F (−34 °C)) in full sun to partial shade conditions, and requires low or no maintenance. It has no known serious insect or disease problems and can generally be grown in most well-drained soils. The plant may be propagated either by seed after the last frost, or by division after flowering.[6][8]

Though invasive, the species is still considered a valuable ground cover in certain garden settings (e.g., as part of English or cottage inspired gardens, as well as spring meadows where low growth and some color is desired in parallel with minimal care and maintenance while helping to crowd out noxious weeds once established and naturalised).

Numerous single- and double-flowered varieties are in cultivation, producing flat or spherical blooms in a range of sizes (1 cm to 6 cm) and colours (red, pink & white). They are generally grown from seed as biennial bedding plants. They can also be purchased as plugs in Spring. The cultivar 'Tasso series' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[9]

Etymology[edit]

Bellis is Latin for "pretty" and perennis is Latin for "everlasting".

The name "daisy" is considered a corruption of "day's eye", because the whole head closes at night and opens in the morning. Chaucer called it "eye of the day". In Medieval times, bellis perennis or the English Daisy was commonly known as "Mary's Rose".[10]

The English Daisy is also considered to be a flower of children and innocence.[11]

Daisy is used as a girl's name and as a nickname for girls named Margaret, after the French name for the oxeye daisy, marguerite.

Uses[edit]

Daisies or Bellis perennis in Coudersport, PA
Daisies by William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1894)

Culinary[edit]

This daisy may be used as a potherb. Young leaves can be eaten raw in salads[12] or cooked, noting that the leaves become increasingly astringent with age.[6] Flower buds and petals can be eaten raw in sandwiches, soups and salads.[7] It is also used as a tea and as a vitamin supplement.[2]

Herbal medicine[edit]

Bellis perennis has astringent properties and has been used in herbal medicine.[13] In ancient Rome, the surgeons who accompanied Roman legions into battle would order their slaves to pick sacks full of daisies in order to extract their juice, hence the origin of this plant's scientific name in Latin. Bandages were soaked in this juice and would then be used to bind sword and spear cuts.

Bellis perennis is still used in homeopathy for wounds and after certain surgical procedures,[14][unreliable source?] as well as for blunt trauma in animals.[15][unreliable source?][16][unreliable source?] Typically, the plant is harvested while in flower when intended for use in homeopathy.[7]

Bellis perennis flowers have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea (or the leaves as a salad) for treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract.[17]

Other uses[edit]

Daisies have traditionally been used for making daisy chains in children's games.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The source The Plant List used was the International Compositae Alliance. "Bellis perennis L.". The Plant List; Version 1. (published on the internet). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden. 2010. Retrieved November 12, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c "Bellis perennis Linnaeus". Flora of North America. 
  3. ^ PLANTS Profile., "Bellis perennis L. lawndaisy", USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=bepe2
  4. ^ Weeds of the Northeast, Introduced, Invasive, and Noxious Plants, United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, retrieved 12 November 2012.
  5. ^ Stace, C.A. (2010). New flora of the British isles (Third ed.). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. p. 749. ISBN 9780521707725. 
  6. ^ a b c "Bellis perennis L.". Missouri Botanical Garden Bellis perennis. 
  7. ^ a b c "Bellis perennis L". Plants for a Future database. 
  8. ^ "USDA Zones". USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map. 
  9. ^ RHS Plant Selector Bellis perennis Tasso Series AGM (broken link)
  10. ^ The Plant-Lore and Garden-Craft of Shakespeare, by Henry N. Ellacombe. W. Satchell and Company, London, 1884
  11. ^ "Daisy." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., 2011. Encyclopedia.com
  12. ^ Johanna Budwig, Krebs - ein Fettproblem, richtige Wahl und Verwendung der Fette. Hyperion-Verlag, Freiburg im Breisgau 1956, p. 44: recipe for cancer patients.
  13. ^ Howard, Michael. Traditional Folk Remedies (Century, 1987), p129
  14. ^ Dana Ullman, Pre-Surgical and Post-Surgical Treatment, Understanding Homeopathy, Healthy.net, retrieved 12 November 2012.
  15. ^ Eileen Naumann, A Homeopathic Profile: Homeopathic Bellis Perennis for Menopause, Medicine Garden, 2007, retrieved 12 November 2012.
  16. ^ Veterinary Homeopathy Bellis perennis, (English Daisy): Homeopathic remedy for Sprains - Blunt Trauma (animals that have been hit by a car) - Muscular Strains, Veterinary Homeopathy, The Learning Center, retrieved 12 November 2012.
  17. ^ Vogl S, Picker P, Mihaly-Bison J, Fakhrudin N, Atanasov AG, Heiss EH,Wawrosch C, Reznicek G, Dirsch VM, Saukel J, Kopp B. Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine - An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs. J Ethnopharmacol.2013 Jun13. doi:pii: S0378-8741(13)00410-8. 10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23770053. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23770053
  18. ^ "Children's 'right to play'". BBC News. BBC. 2002-08-07. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 5.0 of 5

Notes

Comments

There is an old report of Bellis perennis from St. Pierre and Miquelon; it is not established there. It might not have persisted in Alaska. The species is used in homeopathic medicine, as a tea and as a vitamin supplement. It is also a widely planted ornamental.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!