Comprehensive Description

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Camponotus maculatus HNS (Fabricius, 1782) *

East Iran

C. maculatus r. cognatus HNS (Smith, F. 1858)

Det.. Forel

FOREL (1904a)

Camponotus oasium Forel HNS , 1890

Southeast Iran

C. maculatus r. oasium HNS

Det.. Collingwood, Radchenko

FOREL (1904a), Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM

Camponotus oertzeni Forel HNS , 1889

Northwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Radchenko (1996b, 1997a), IZK , ZMMU , MIZ

Camponotus sanctus Forel HNS , 1904

South Iran

Det. Radchenko

Radchenko (1996b, 1997a), HMIM , ZMMU

Camponotus thoracicus HNS (Fabricius, 1804) *

East Iran

C. maculatus r. dichrous HNS

Det.. Forel

FOREL (1904a)

Camponotus turkestanicus Emery HNS , 1887 *

NE.

Det. Radchenko

Radchenko (1996b, 1997a), HMIM , ZMGU

Camponotus turkestanus Andre HNS , 1882

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Radchenko (1996b, 1997a), IZK , ZMMU

Camponotus vogti Forel HNS , 1906

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), ARDEH (1994), HMIM

Camponotus xerxes Forel HNS , 1904 * #

North Iran

C. maculatus r. xerxes HNS

Det.. Radchenko

Radchenko (1996b, 1997a) , Forel (1904b) , ARDEH (1994) , ZMGU , ZMMU

Cardiocondyla HNS brachyceps Seifert, 2003 #

South Iran

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla elegans Emery HNS , 1869

North Iran.

Det. Seifert, Radchenko

SEIFERT (2003), Taylor (2006), HMIM

Cardiocondyla fajumensis Forel HNS , 1913

South Iran

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla mauritanica Forel HNS , 1890

South Iran

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla persiana Seifert HNS , 2003 #

South Iran

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla sahlbergi Forel HNS , 1913

Northwest Iran.

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla stambuloffii Forel HNS , 1892

Northwest Iran.

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla HNS unicalis Seifert, 2003 #

W.

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cataglyphis aenescens HNS (Nylander, 1849)

North and Northeast Iran

Myrmecocysttus cursor r. tancrei HNS

Det.. Radchenko, Taylor

FOREL (1904a) , PAKNIA & KAMI (2007) , Taylor (2006) , HMIM

Cataglyphis altisquamis HNS (Andre, 1881)

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Cataglyphis bellicosus HNS (Karavaiev, 1924) #

North Iran

Myrmecocystus bicolor ssp. bellicosus HNS

Radchenko

KARAVAIEV (1924), IZK , ZMMU

Cataglyphis bucharicus Emery HNS , 1925

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU

Cataglyphis cuneinodis Arnoldi HNS , 1964

Northwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU

Cataglyphis emeryi HNS (Karavaiev, 1911)

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU

Cataglyphis foreli HNS (Ruzsky, 1903)

Northeast Iran

Myrmecocystus altiquamis r. foreli HNS .

Det.. Radchenko

FOREL (1904a), ZMGU

Cataglyphis frigidus persicus HNS (Emery, 1906) #

South Iran

Myrmecosystus frigidus var. persica HNS .

Det.. Emery

EMERY (1906)

Cataglyphis lividus HNS ( André , 1881)

Northeast, North and South Iran

Myrmecocystus albicans r. lividus HNS .

Det.. Collingwood, Radchenko

FOREL (1904a) , ALIPANAH & al. (2000) , ARDEH (1994) , p, HMIM , ZMGU

Cataglyphis niger HNS ( André , 1881)

North and South Iran

Myrmecocystus viaticus r. niger HNS .

Det.. Collingwood, Radchenko

FOREL (1904a) , ALIPANAH & al. (2000) , ARDEH (1994) , p, HMIM , ZMGU

Cataglyphis nigripes Arnoldi HNS , 1964

West and Northwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU , HMIM

Cataglyphis nodus HNS (Brulle, 1833)

North and South Iran

Cataglyphis bicolor var. nodus Menozzi HNS (1927).

Det.. Collingwood, Radchenko

MENOZZI (1927) , ALIPANAH & al. (2000) , ARDEH (1994) , p, ZMGU

Cataglyphis ruber HNS (Forel, 1903)

Northwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU

Cataglyphis setipes HNS (Forel, 1894)

South Iran

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), HMIM

Crematogaster antaris Forel HNS , 1894

Southwest Iran.

Det. Collingwood

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM

Crematogaster bogojawlenskii Ruzsky HNS , 1905

Northeast Iran.

Det. Radchenko

IZK

Crematogaster inermis Mayr HNS , 1862 *

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM

Crematogaster schmidti HNS (Mayr, 1853)

North Iran

C. scutellaris ssp. schmidti HNS

Det. Crawley

Crawley (1920a)

Crematogaster sorokini Ruzsky HNS , 1905

West Iran

Det. Radchenko

ALIPANAH (2004), HMIM

Crematogaster subdentata Mayr HNS , 1877

North Iran.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

ARDEH (1994), HMIM

Dorylus HNS sp. *

Southwest Iran.

Det. Alipanah

HMIM

Formica cunicularia Latreille HNS , 1798

North Iran

Formica glauca Ruzsky HNS , 1896.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), HMIM

Formica lusatica Seifert HNS , 1997

North Iran.

Det. Schultz, Seifert

PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU

Formica rufibarbis Fabricius HNS , 1793

Northwest Iran.

Det. Crawley, Anaraki

CRAWLEY (1920b), Anaraki (1981),

Formica sanguinea Latreille HNS , 1798

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), HMIM

Lasius alienus HNS ( Förster , 1850)

Northwest Iran.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

CRAWLEY (1920b), ARDEH (1994), HMIM

Lasius brunneus HNS (Latreille, 1798)

Northwest Iran.

Det. Crawley

CRAWLEY (1920b)

Lasius emarginatus HNS (Oliver, 1792)

Northwest and North Iran

L. emarginatus var HNS . nigro- emarginatus HNS .

Det. Seifert

CRAWLEY (1920b), ZMGU

Lasius lasioides HNS (Emery, 1869)

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU

Lasius neglectus Van Loon HNS , Boomsma & Andrasfalvy, 1990 *

North Iran.

Det. Schultz, Seifert

PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU

Lasius platythorax Seifert HNS , 1991

Southwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

ALIPANAH (2004), HMIM

Lasius turcicus Santschi HNS , 1921

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood, Radchenko

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), HMIM

Lepisiota bipartita HNS (Smith, F., 1861)

East and North Iran

Acantholepis frauenfeldi r. bipartita HNS .

Det. Collingwood

FOREL (1904a), HMIM

Lepisiota dolabellae HNS (Forel, 1911)

North Iran.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

ARDEH (1994), HMIM

Lepisiota semenovi HNS (Ruzsky, 1905)

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Tahmasebi & Alipanah (2000), HMIM

Leptothorax acervorum HNS (Fabricius, 1793)

North Iran.

Det. Taylor

Taylor (2006), ZMGU

Liometopum microcephalum HNS (Panzer, 1798)

West Iran

Det. Radchenko

PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU

Messor caducus HNS (Victor, 1839)

North, Northwest and South Iran.

Det. Cook

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), z, ZMMU

Messor concolor Santschi HNS , 1927

North Iran.

Det. Taylor

Taylor (2006), ZMGU

Messor dentatus Santschi HNS , 1927

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM

Messor denticulatus Santschi HNS , 1927

Northeast Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Arnoldi (1977), HMIM

Messor ebeninus Santschi HNS , 1927

Southwest and North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM

Messor incorruptus Kuznetsov-Ugamsky HNS , 1929

West Iran

Det. Radchenko

ALIPANAH (2004), HMIM

Messor intermedius Santschi HNS , 1927 *

S

Messor semirufus var. intermedius HNS

Det. Radchenko

MENOZZI (1927), ZMGU

Messor meridionalis HNS ( André , 1883)

Southwest and North Iran.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

ARDEH (1994), HMIM

Messor minor HNS ( André , 1883)

West Iran

Det. Radchenko

HMIM

Messor rufotestaceus HNS ( Förster , 1850)

S, SWest Iran

Det. Radchenko, Collingwood

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), ZMGU , HMIM

Messor semirufus HNS ( André , 1883)

Southwest Iran

M. barbarus r. semirufus HNS .

Det. Crawley

Crawley (1920a)

Messor structor HNS (Latreille, 1798)

Northwest and North Iran

M. platyceras var. rubella HNS .

Det. Radchenko

Crawley (1920a), HMIM

Messor structor platyceras Crawley HNS , 1920 #

Northwest Iran

M. platyceras Crawley HNS

Crawley (1920a)

Monomorium abeillei Andre HNS , 1881

Southwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM

Monomorium destructor HNS (Jerdon, 1851) *

Southwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM

Monomorium kusnezovi Santschi HNS , 1928

Northeast Iran.

Det. Radchenko

ALIPANAH (2004), HMIM

Monomorium nitidiventre Emery HNS , 1893

South Iran

Det. Taylor

Taylor (2006), ZMGU

Monomorium pharaonis HNS (Linnaeus, 1758) *

South Iran

Det. Radchenko

MENOZZI (1927), ZMGU

Monomorium salomonis HNS (Linnaeus, 1758)

South Iran

M. salmonis HNS var.?

Menozzi

MENOZZI (1927)

Myrmica bergi Ruzsky HNS , 1902

North and Northwest Iran

M. bergi var. fortior HNS

Det. Radchenko

Crawley (1920a), IZK

Myrmica sabuleti Meinert HNS , 1861

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ARDEH (1994), HMIM

Pachycondyla sennaarensis HNS (Mayr, 1862) *

South and Southeast Iran.

Det. Cook, Paknia

Tirgari & Paknia (2005), PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), w, ZMGU

Paratrechina flavipes HNS (F. Smith, 1874) *

Southwest Iran.

Det. Collingwood

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM

Paratrechina longicornis HNS (Latreille, 1802) *

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood, Schultz

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), HMIM , ZMGU

Paratrechina vividula HNS (Nylander, 1846) *

Southeast Iran

Prenolepis vividula HNS

Det. Forel

FOREL (1904a)

Pheidole pallidula HNS (Nylander, 1849)

Northwest Iran

Ph. pallidula subsp. arenarum var. orientalis HNS .

Det. Collingwood

Crawley (1920a), f, HMIM

Pheidole sinaitica Mayr HNS , 1862

South Iran

Det. Cook

Tirgari & PAKNIA (2004), ZMGU

Pheidole teneriffana Forel HNS , 1893 *

North and South Iran.

Det. Collingwood, Cook

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), ARDEH (1994), p, ZMGU , HMIM

Plagiolepis pallescens Forel HNS , 1889

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), HMIM

Plagiolepis taurica Santschi HNS , 1920

North Iran

Plagiolepis vindobonensis Lomnicki HNS , 1925.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

ARDEH (1994), HMIM

Polyrhachis lacteipennis F. Smith HNS , 1858 *

South and Southeast Iran.

Det. Cook, Radchenko

Tirgari & PAKNIA (2004), HMIM , ZMMU , ZMGU

Ponera HNS sp.

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

ZMGU

Solenopsis cf. fugax HNS (Latreille, 1798)

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM

Solenopsis cf. latro Forel HNS , 1894

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM

Tapinoma erraticum HNS (Latreille, 1798)

North and South Iran

T. erraticum subsp. nigerrimum HNS

Det. Radchenko, Taylor

Crawley (1920a), Taylor (2006), ZISP , ZMGU

Tapinoma karavaievi Emery HNS , 1925 *

North and South Iran.

Det. Radchenko

HMIM , ZMGU

Temnothorax iranicus HNS (Radchenko, 1994) #

North Iran

Leptothorax iranicus HNS

Det. Radchenko

Radchenko (1994a), ZMMU , IZK

Temnothorax parvulus (Schenck, 1852) HNS

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

ZMGU

Tetramorium HNS cf. caespitum HNS (Linnaeus, 1758) *

North and South Iran.

Det. Cook

Crawley (1920a), PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU

Tetramorium HNS chefketi Forel, 1911 *

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM

Tetramorium davidi Forel HNS , 1911

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM

Tetramorium ferox Ruzsky HNS , 1903

South Iran

Det. Cook

Tirgari & PAKNIA (2004), ZMGU

Tetramorium inerme Mayr HNS , 1877

Northeast Iran.

Det. Radchenko

IZK

Tetramorium HNS sp. *

North Iran

T. moravicum HNS .

Det. Radchenko

Fig . 1: Map of Iran with the localities where ants were collected (black dots).

Steiner & al. 2006, Csosz & al. 2007). However, based on distribution maps of Tetramorium HNS ants in the western Palearctic(see Schlick-Steiner & al. 2006) we left this species in the list as Tetramorium HNS cf. caespitum HNS . The situation is similar with the old records of Lasius HNS species (see Seifert 1992), that need to be reviewed by modern keys. Nevertheless this work is beyond the scope of the present paper, so we included these species in our preliminary list without revision.

The record of Dorylinae HNS is the first record of this subfamily after the new clarification of this subfamily by Bolton(2003).

Distribution of records

Regarding the geographical distribution of the species records that had been examined in this study, we found a mismatching between the area of the locations that had been studied and the respective number of species that had been found there: e.g., 34 species of a total of 109 species were collected in natural or disturbed habitats of Tehran province, though the territory of this province is less than 2 % of the territory of the country. Fifteen species were recorded from the Caspian forest region in the north of Iran that covers only 4 % of the country. Eight species were found in Zagros Mountains forest-steppe ecoregion (about 20 % of entire area of the country). From the south of Iran altogether 34 species were reported. In contrast, there are only a few records from the wide Elburz Range forest-steppe and the Eastern Anatoloian Mountains in the north and northwest of Iran, or from eastern parts and the centre of the country that lie in the vast Central Persian desert basin. There are no species records at all from the Eastern Iran mountain woodlands, the Kopet Dag woodlands, Kopet Dag semi desert, Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe, and the desert and semi-desert areas in the centre and the east of Iran that comprise more than 50 % of the area of the country.

Discussion

Although the first reports on Iranian ants were published more than 100 years ago, the ant fauna of this country remains poorly known. Most of the records are from the north of Iran, but many of these samples were collected in disturbed environments near human settlements that comprise only a few percent of the country's surface area. There are only a few species reports from the extensive natural habitats of the north, for example from the Caspian deciduous forests. The latter should have a rich ant fauna due to old geological age of that forest region: it has been covered with forests since the late Tertiary period (Zohary 1973). As a result, Tertiarian elements could have survived, as it is known for the adjacent Talysh and Zuvand districts in south-eastern Azerbaijan (Arnoldi 1930, 1948).

Among the other regions that have been investigated only cursorily is the Nubo-Sindian desert and semi desert ecoregion in the south and the southeast of the country. These areas are particularly interesting faunistically, as they are close to the boundaries of the Oriental and Afrotropical zoogeographic regions. Four important ecoregions that comprise a large part of the Irano-Anatolian biodiversity

hotspot have not been studied at all. These are the Eastern Anatolian Mountains, Elburz forest-steppe, Kopet Dag woodlands and forest-steppe, and Zagros Mountains forest-steppe. For comparison, the well studied myrmecofauna of the Turkmenistan's part of the Kopet Dag is one of the richest local ant fauna in Central Asia (Dlussky & Zabelin1985, Dlussky & al. 1990).

This scarcity of data, especially from the border regions, does not permit to make a proper zoogeographical analysis of the Iranian ant fauna at present. However, in the future, when sufficient material will have been sampled, the Iranian myrmecofauna needs to be compared with those of the adjacent regions, e.g., Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Arabian Peninsula. Similarly, the presence of North African elements in Iran (e.g., Camponotus fellah Dalla Torre HNS , 1893 or Crematogaster inermis Mayr HNS , 1862) demonstrates a relation of the Iranian and North African desert faunas that has to be confirmed by more intensive sampling.

The Iranian ant fauna includes eight "tramp" species, which have been introduced by humans to many countries and in some cases have gained a worldwide distribution (see also McGlynn 1999, Paknia 2006, Paknia & Kami 2007): Lasius neglectus Van Loon HNS , Boomsma & Andrasfalvy, 1990, Monomorium pharaonis HNS (Linnaeus, 1758), M. destructor HNS (Jerdon, 1851), Pheidole teneriffana Forel HNS , 1893, Paratrechina longicornis HNS (Latreille, 1802), P. flavipes HNS (Smith, F., 1874), P. vividula HNS (Nylander, 1846) and Pachycondyla sennaarensis HNS (Mayr, 1862).

Almost half of the recorded species in the Iranian checklist belong to the genera Camponotus HNS , Messor HNS and Cataglyphis HNS . Similar faunistic patterns are found in other arid Asian regions, e.g., Turkmenistan (Dlussky & al. 1990) and Saudi Arabia (Collingwood 1985, Collingwood& Agosti 1996). The main reason for the high diversity of these genera are the environmental conditions in Iran that comprise mainly arid and semi arid areas, the preferred habitats of Messor HNS , Cataglyphis HNS and many Camponotus HNS species (Dlussky 1981, Dlussky & al. 1990, Höll- dobler & Wilson 1990, Andersen & Clay 1996, Andersen& spain 1996).

The second reason for the dominance of those three genera in ant collections may be artificial: their members are large and can be easily collected by anyone. In the majority of the former studies, "direct hand collecting" was the main method. For this reason small-sized and cryptic ants (e.g., Leptanillinae HNS , Amblyoponinae HNS , Dacetini HNS , etc.) are under-represented in the investigated material. Furthermore, social parasites are also missing in the presented species list of Iran. To overcome this sampling bias and to establish a reliable species list, thorough investigations of ant diversity in all parts of Iran are urgently needed. They should be conducted by standard sampling methods, like direct collecting from ant nests, pitfall traps, bait trapping and litter extraction with Winkler collectors (see Agosti & Alonso

2000).

At last, we have to emphasize that the Iranian ant fauna seems to be one of typically Palaearctic character. If we exclude the introduced species mentioned above, native members of only four tropical (Oriental or Afrotropical) genera are found in Iran: Aenictus dlusskyi Arnoldi HNS , 1968, Anochetus evansi Crawley HNS , 1922, Dorylus HNS sp., and Polyrhachis lacteipennis Smith, F., 1858. This dominance of

Palaearctic ant genera will probably persist in a more comprehensive species list to be presented in the future.

Acknowledgements

We thank Hamidreza Hajiqanbar for collecting and sending the material of two ant species, Crematogaster bogojawlenskii and Tetramorium inerme that were new to Iran. We thank Dr. Bernhard Seifert for his taxonomic comments, Dr. Cedric A. Collingwood for the identification of many specimens and Dr. Dubovikov for checking Forel's vouchers in ZISP. We are indebted to John Fellowes, an anonymous referee and the editors for their useful suggestions towards the improvement of our paper. We thank Doug Johns and Bryson Voirin for language correction of the first and the second versions of the text, respectively.

Zusammenfassung

Nach einer umfassenden Durchsicht der Literatur und der Untersuchung von Material aus eigenen Aufsammlungen sowie aus Museen und Forschungsinstituten verschiedener europäischerLänder , präsentieren wir die erste Artenliste der Ameisen des Iran: 110 Arten aus 26 Gattungen und sechs Unterfamilien der Formicidae HNS ( Formicinae HNS , Myrmicinae HNS , Ponerinae HNS , Dolichoderinae HNS , Dorylinae HNS und Aenictinae HNS ) wurden bislang gefunden. Die meisten der hier gelisteten Arten wurden im Norden des Landes gesammelt, zumeist in anthropogen beeinflussten Gebieten in der Nähe von Siedlungen. Eine Unterfamilie ( Dorylinae HNS ), zwei Gattungen( Ponera HNS Latreille, 1804 und Dorylus HNS Fabricius, 1793), sowie sieben Arten der Formicidae HNS ( Aphaenogaster gibbosa HNS (Latreille, 1798), A. kurdica Ruzsky HNS , 1905, Messor minor HNS (Andre, 1883), Tapinoma karavaievi Emery HNS , 1925, Temnothorax parvulus (Schenck, 1852), Tetramorium inerme Mayr HNS , 1877, und Crematogaster bogojawlenskii Ruzsky HNS , 1905) wurden erstmalig für den Iran registriert. Die artenreichsten Gattungen des Iran sind Camponotus HNS Mayr, 1861 mit 19 Arten sowie Cataglyphis HNS Foerster, 1850 mit 14 und Messor HNS Forel, 1890 mit 13 Arten. Zoogeographisch gesehen dominieren paläarktische Elemente im Iran, allerdings wurden auch verschiedene Arten der Orientalis und Afrotropis gefunden. Viele Landesteile wurden bislang kaum oder gar nicht untersucht und der Artenreichtum der Formicidae HNS des gesamten Iran dürfte wesentlich größer sein.

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