Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Scrambling or climbing shrub, to 4 m (or more when supported). Leaves ovate to triangular, 3-veined from the base, gland-dotted below, smelling strongly of turpentine or paraffin when crushed. Capitula c. 10 × 3 mm, cylindric. Achenes c.5 mm, straw-coloured.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Derivation of specific name

odorata: odorous, fragrant
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: A weed in all terrestrial habitats Naturalized , Native of Tropical America"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Miscellaneous Details

Flowers attract butterflies.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub Distribution notes: Exotic
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Worldwide distribution

North, Central and South America (SE USA to N Argentina)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: Tropical America, n. to s. FL to Paraguay, TX, West Indies, FL Keys, W. Africa, Malaya, Grand Cayman.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

"
Global Distribution

Native of America; naturalised in Tropical Asia

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

"Karnataka: Coorg, Hassan, Mysore Kerala: All districts Tamil Nadu: All districts"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

"Found along the roadsides and waste places from plains to 1000m. Common. Native of tropical America, naturalized widely in tropical Asia."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

An introduced weed, native of America, naturalised widely in tropical Asia.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In much branched, corymbose panicles; capitula white. Flowering from December-March.

Fruit

An achene, scaly without, angles thickened. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Leaves 3-nerved from base.

Leaf Arrangement

Opposite-decussate

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Obovate to deltoid-ovate

Leaf Apex

Acute

Leaf Base

Acute to truncate

Leaf Margin

Coarsely serrate

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Perennials or subshrubs, mostly 80–250 cm. Stems erect or sprawling to subscandent, hispidulous to coarsely short-pilose. Petioles 5–20 mm. Leaf blades (3-nerved) narrowly lanceolate to deltate-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 3–10 × 1–4 cm, margins coarsely dentate to subentire. Heads usually 5–50+ in (terminal or lateral) corymbiform arrays. Involucres cylindric, (7–)8–10 mm. Phyllaries in 4–6(–8) series, apices of the inner appressed, rounded to truncate (sometimes slightly white-petaloid or expanded). Corollas purplish to light blue to nearly white or slightly pinkish. 2n = 40, 60, 70.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Elevation Range

400-1500 m
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Habit: An aromatic, erect shrub, upto 3m."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic

"Shrubs, glandular hairy. Leaves 8-12 x 5-8 cm, ovate, apex acute, base cuneate, crenate, hispid; petiole 2-3 cm long, cylindrical-oblong. Heads to 10 mm long, in terminal corymbose cymes; bracts 3-5-seriate, to 8 mm long, ovate, obtuse; outer smaller, inner linear, acute, 3-ribbed. Flowers few to many, similar, bisexual; corolla 5 mm long, white, tubular, 5-lobed, pubescent at apex. Achenes 4 mm long, linear, 5-angled, scabrous, black; pappus many, 4-7 mm long, setaceous, yellowish."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Synonym

Eupatorium odoratum Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1205. 1759; Osmia odorata (Linnaeus) Schultz-Bipontinus
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Hammocks and thickets. Pastures and clearings on limestone and waste places, 0-2300 feet.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Habitat

"Less in the plains, introduced. Aggressive colonizer. Hills, lower slopes, 500-1000m. Native of south America. Widely naturalized in tropical Asia."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Habitat

A weed in all terrestrial habitats
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Frequency

Very rare casual
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: November-May
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Chemistry

Seed contains alkaloids. Leaf contains cerylic alcohol, sisterol, isosakuranetine and odoratine. Oil contains sesquiterpenic acid, eupatol and anisic acid. Whole plant contains triterpenic alcohols.

  • Austin, D.F. and G.R. Bourne. 1992. Notes on Guyana's medical ethnobotany. Economic Botany 46(3): 293-298.
  • Bose, P.K., Chakrabarti, P., Chakravarti, S., Dutta, S.P. and A.K. Barua. 1973. Flavonoid constituents of Eupatorium odoratum. Phytochemistry 12(3): 667-668.
  • Grenand, P., Moretti, C. and H. Jacquemin. 1987. Pharmacopées Traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayapi. 569 pp. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.
  • Jones, Q. and F.R. Earle. 1966. Chemical analyses of seeds, II. Oil and protein content of 759 species. Economic Botany 20(2): 127-155.
  • Koster, J.T. 1938. Compositae, pp. 87-165. In: Pulle, A., ed., Flora of Suriname. Vol. 4, Part 2. Amsterdam: J.H. De Bussy.
  • Talapatra, S.K., Bhar, D.S. and B. Talapatra. 1974. Flavonoid and terpenoid constituents of Eupatorium odoratum. Phytochemistry 13(1): 284-285.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Stem: Among French Guiana Palikur, when the need arises for an emollient to use while extracting splinters, the stems and branches of this plant are crushed and combined with the wood-pulp of Cecropia obtusa and a seed of Theobroma cacao, kneaded in Carapa oil, and locally applied in a plaster. Leaf: In Guyana, used in a tea for cleansing the blood.

  • Austin, D.F. and G.R. Bourne. 1992. Notes on Guyana's medical ethnobotany. Economic Botany 46(3): 293-298.
  • Grenand, P., Moretti, C. and H. Jacquemin. 1987. Pharmacopées Traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayapi. 569 pp. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.
  • Koster, J.T. 1938. Compositae, pp. 87-165. In: Pulle, A., ed., Flora of Suriname. Vol. 4, Part 2. Amsterdam: J.H. De Bussy.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Uses

"The leaf extract used in the treatment of soft tissue wounds, burns and skin infections."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Folklore

Indigenous Information: The sap from the crushed leaves applied on cut wounds for quick healing.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Chromolaena odorata

Flower in Kerala
Indian Cabbage White (Pieris canidia) on C. odorata at Samsing in Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India.

Chromolaena odorata is a tropical species of flowering shrub in the sunflower family, Asteraceae. It is native to North America, from Florida and Texas to Mexico and the Caribbean,[1] and has been introduced to tropical Asia, west Africa, and parts of Australia. Common names include Siam Weed, Christmas Bush, Devil Weed, Camfhur Grass and Common Floss Flower.[2]

Description[edit]

Chromolaena odorata is a rapidly growing perennial herb. It is a multi-stemmed shrub to 2.5 m tall in open areas. It has soft stems but the base of the shrub is woody. In shady areas it becomes etiolated and behaves as a creeper, growing on other vegetation. It can then become up to 10 m tall. The plant is hairy and glandular and the leaves give off a pungent, aromatic odour when crushed. The leaves are opposite, triangular to elliptical with serrated edges. Leaves are 4–10 cms long by 1–5 cms wide. Leaf petioles are 1–4 cms long. The white to pale pink tubular flowers are in panicles of 10 to 35 flowers that form at the ends of branches. The seeds are achenes and are somewhat hairy. They are mostly spread by the wind, but can also cling to fur, clothes and machinery, enabling long distance dispersal. Seed production is about 80000 to 90000 per plant. Seeds need light to germinate. The plant can regenerate from the roots. In favorable conditions the plant can grow more than 3 cms. a day.[3]

Classification[edit]

It was earlier taxonomically classified under the genus Eupatorium, but is now considered more closely related to other genera in the tribe Eupatorieae.[4]

Uses[edit]

It is sometimes grown as a medicinal and ornamental plant. It is used as a traditional medicine in Indonesia, Thailand and parts of Africa including Nigeria. The young leaves are crushed, and the resulting liquid can be used to treat skin wounds.[citation needed] In traditional medicine of Thailand the plant is used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and as insect repellent.[5] The phytoprostane compound chromomoric acid C-I has been identified from Chromolaena odorata as a strong inducer of the activity of the transcription factor NFE2L2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of a range of genes with defensive, anti-inflammatory, and detoxifying functions.[6] A recent review indicates that the ethno-pharmacological, funcigicidal, nematicidal importance of the plant and its use as a fallow species and as a soil fertility improvement plant in the slash and burn rotation system of agriculture has contributed to its continued use and spread in Nigeria.[7]

Invasive Species[edit]

A sign in Kloof encouraging the elimination of Chromolaena odorata, colloquially known as Triffids

Chromolaena odorata is considered an invasive weed of field crops and natural environments in its introduced range.[8] It has been reported to be the most problematic invasive species within protected rainforests in Africa.[9] In Western Africa it prevents regeneration of tree species in areas of shifting cultivation. It affects species diversity in southern Africa. The plants flammability affects forest edges.[10] In Sri Lanka it is a major weed in disturbed areas and coconut plantations.[2] Biological control with a defoliating artiid was started in the 1970s but without success except for Sri Lanka and Guam. A renewed call for coordinated biological control effort in Nigeria has been made to attempt to bring the plant back into an ecological equilibrium.[7] In Australia a systematic eradication programme with herbicide has been initiated.[11]

History of Introduction[edit]

In the 19th century Chromolaena odorata escaped from the botanical gardens at Dacca (India), Java (Indonesia) and Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). In Western Africa the plant was accidentally introduced with forestry seeds. It was introduced as an ornamental in Southern Africa, and was introduced to Ivory Coast in 1952 to control Imperata grasses. It was first found in Queensland, Australia in 1994 and was perhaps introduced with foreign pasture seeds.[12]

Toxicity[edit]

Chromolaena odorata contains carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids.[13] It is toxic to cattle.[2] It can also cause allergic reactions.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Chromolaena odorata". Flora of North America. 
  2. ^ a b c Lalith Gunasekera, Invasive Plants: A guide to the identification of the most invasive plants of Sri Lanka, Colombo 2009, p. 116–117.
  3. ^ Lalith Gunasekera, Invasive Plants: A guide to the identification of the most invasive plants of Sri Lanka, Colombo 2009, p. 116–117. ”Siam weed or chromolaena (Chromolaena odorata)” Weed Management Guide at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/publications/guidelines/alert/pubs/c-odorata.pdf and Pierre Binggeli ”Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson (Asteraceae)”, 1997, at http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~afs101/iwpt/web-sp4.htm
  4. ^ GJ Schmidt, EE Schilling (May 2000). "Phylogeny and Biogeography of Eupatorium (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) Based on Nuclear ITS Sequence". American Journal of Botany (Botanical Society of America) 87 (5): 716–726. doi:10.2307/2656858. JSTOR 2656858. PMID 10811796. 
  5. ^ Wang L, Waltenberger B, Pferschy-Wenzig EM, Blunder M, Liu X, Malainer C, Blazevic T, Schwaiger S, Rollinger JM, Heiss EH, Schuster D, Kopp B, Bauer R, Stuppner H, Dirsch VM, Atanasov AG. Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ): a review. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014 Jul 29. pii: S0006-2952(14)00424-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2014.07.018. PubMed PMID 25083916.
  6. ^ Heiss EH, Tran TV, Zimmermann K, Schwaiger S, Vouk C, Mayerhofer B, Malainer C, Atanasov AG, Stuppner H, Dirsch VM. Identification of Chromomoric Acid C-I as an Nrf2 Activator in Chromolaena odorata. J Nat Prod. 2014 Jan 29. PubMed PMID 24476568.
  7. ^ a b Uyi OO, Ekhator F, Ikuenobe CE, Borokini TI, Aigbokhan EI, Egbon IN, Adebayo AR, Igbinosa IB, Okeke CO, Igbinosa EO, Omokhua GA. 2014. Chromolaena odorata invasion in Nigeria: A case for coordinated biological control] Management of Biological Invasions (2014) 5(4): 377–393. [1]
  8. ^ ”Siam weed or chromolaena (Chromolaena odorata)” Weed Management Guide at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/publications/guidelines/alert/pubs/c-odorata.pdf and Pierre Binggeli ”Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson (Asteraceae)”, 1997, at http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~afs101/iwpt/web-sp4.htm
  9. ^ TT Struhsaker, PJ Struhsaker, KS Siex (May 2005). "Conserving Africa’s rain forests: problems in protected areas and possible solutions" (PDF). Biological Conservation 123 (1): 45–54. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2004.10.007. ISSN 0006-3207. 
  10. ^ ref>Pierre Binggeli ”Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson (Asteraceae)”, 1997, at http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~afs101/iwpt/web-sp4.htm
  11. ^ Pierre Binggeli ”Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson (Asteraceae)”, 1997, at http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~afs101/iwpt/web-sp4.htm ”Siam weed or chromolaena (Chromolaena odorata)” Weed Management Guide at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/publications/guidelines/alert/pubs/c-odorata.pdf
  12. ^ Pierre Binggeli ”Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson (Asteraceae)”, 1997, at http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~afs101/iwpt/web-sp4.htm
  13. ^ Fu, P.P., Yang, Y.C., Xia, Q., Chou, M.C., Cui, Y.Y., Lin G., "Pyrrolizidine alkaloids-tumorigenic components in Chinese herbal medicines and dietary supplements", Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2002, pp. 198-211 [2]
  14. ^ ”Siam weed or chromolaena (Chromolaena odorata)” Weed Management Guide at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/publications/guidelines/alert/pubs/c-odorata.pdf

Further reading[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Common Names

FG Creole: radie maringouin. FG Palikur: katumat. FG Wayapi: panakawa. Guyana: Christmas flower. Surinam Carib: maoewelang.

  • Austin, D.F. and G.R. Bourne. 1992. Notes on Guyana's medical ethnobotany. Economic Botany 46(3): 293-298.
  • Grenand, P., Moretti, C. and H. Jacquemin. 1987. Pharmacopées Traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayapi. 569 pp. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.
  • Koster, J.T. 1938. Compositae, pp. 87-165. In: Pulle, A., ed., Flora of Suriname. Vol. 4, Part 2. Amsterdam: J.H. De Bussy.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Synonyms

  • Austin, D.F. and G.R. Bourne. 1992. Notes on Guyana's medical ethnobotany. Economic Botany 46(3): 293-298.
  • Grenand, P., Moretti, C. and H. Jacquemin. 1987. Pharmacopées Traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayapi. 569 pp. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.
  • Koster, J.T. 1938. Compositae, pp. 87-165. In: Pulle, A., ed., Flora of Suriname. Vol. 4, Part 2. Amsterdam: J.H. De Bussy.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!