Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: A weed in all terrestrial habitats Naturalized , Native of Tropical America"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Miscellaneous Details

Flowers attract butterflies.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub Distribution notes: Exotic
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Scrambling or climbing shrub, to 4 m (or more when supported). Leaves ovate to triangular, 3-veined from the base, gland-dotted below, smelling strongly of turpentine or paraffin when crushed. Capitula c. 10 × 3 mm, cylindric. Achenes c.5 mm, straw-coloured.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Derivation of specific name

odorata: odorous, fragrant
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

"
Global Distribution

Native of America; naturalised in Tropical Asia

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

"Karnataka: Coorg, Hassan, Mysore Kerala: All districts Tamil Nadu: All districts"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

"Found along the roadsides and waste places from plains to 1000m. Common. Native of tropical America, naturalized widely in tropical Asia."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Eupatorium conyzoides fo. angustiflorum Cuatrec.:
Ecuador (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Eupatorium odoratum Walter:
Argentina (South America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Osmia odorata (L.) Sch. Bip.:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Eupatorium floribundum Kunth:
Peru (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob.:
Argentina (South America)
Belize (Mesoamerica)
Bolivia (South America)
Brazil (South America)
Colombia (South America)
Ecuador (South America)
El Salvador (Mesoamerica)
Venezuela (South America)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
South Africa (Africa & Madagascar)
Caribbean (Caribbean)
Peru (South America)
Paraguay (South America)
Suriname (South America)
French Guiana (South America)
Guyana (South America)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Eupatorium graciliflorum DC.:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Eupatorium divergens Less.:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Eupatorium conyzoides var. tambillense Hieron.:
Peru (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Eupatorium conyzoides var. floribunda (Kunth) Hieron.:
Ecuador (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Eupatorium clematitis DC.:
Peru (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Eupatorium odoratum L.:
Belize (Mesoamerica)
El Salvador (Mesoamerica)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
Caribbean (Caribbean)
China (Asia)
Bolivia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Worldwide distribution

North, Central and South America (SE USA to N Argentina)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: Tropical America, n. to s. FL to Paraguay, TX, West Indies, FL Keys, W. Africa, Malaya, Grand Cayman.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

An introduced weed, native of America, naturalised widely in tropical Asia.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In much branched, corymbose panicles; capitula white. Flowering from December-March.

Fruit

An achene, scaly without, angles thickened. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Leaves 3-nerved from base.

Leaf Arrangement

Opposite-decussate

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Obovate to deltoid-ovate

Leaf Apex

Acute

Leaf Base

Acute to truncate

Leaf Margin

Coarsely serrate

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Perennials or subshrubs, mostly 80–250 cm. Stems erect or sprawling to subscandent, hispidulous to coarsely short-pilose. Petioles 5–20 mm. Leaf blades (3-nerved) narrowly lanceolate to deltate-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 3–10 × 1–4 cm, margins coarsely dentate to subentire. Heads usually 5–50+ in (terminal or lateral) corymbiform arrays. Involucres cylindric, (7–)8–10 mm. Phyllaries in 4–6(–8) series, apices of the inner appressed, rounded to truncate (sometimes slightly white-petaloid or expanded). Corollas purplish to light blue to nearly white or slightly pinkish. 2n = 40, 60, 70.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Elevation Range

400-1500 m
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Habit: An aromatic, erect shrub, upto 3m."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic

"Shrubs, glandular hairy. Leaves 8-12 x 5-8 cm, ovate, apex acute, base cuneate, crenate, hispid; petiole 2-3 cm long, cylindrical-oblong. Heads to 10 mm long, in terminal corymbose cymes; bracts 3-5-seriate, to 8 mm long, ovate, obtuse; outer smaller, inner linear, acute, 3-ribbed. Flowers few to many, similar, bisexual; corolla 5 mm long, white, tubular, 5-lobed, pubescent at apex. Achenes 4 mm long, linear, 5-angled, scabrous, black; pappus many, 4-7 mm long, setaceous, yellowish."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Synonym

Eupatorium odoratum Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1205. 1759; Osmia odorata (Linnaeus) Schultz-Bipontinus
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Less in the plains, introduced. Aggressive colonizer. Hills, lower slopes, 500-1000m. Native of south America. Widely naturalized in tropical Asia."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

General Habitat

A weed in all terrestrial habitats
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments: Hammocks and thickets. Pastures and clearings on limestone and waste places, 0-2300 feet.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Frequency

Very rare casual
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: November-May
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

"The leaf extract used in the treatment of soft tissue wounds, burns and skin infections."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Folklore

Indigenous Information: The sap from the crushed leaves applied on cut wounds for quick healing.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Chromolaena odorata

Flower in Kerala
Indian Cabbage White (Pieris canidia) on C. odorata at Samsing in Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India.

Chromolaena odorata is a tropical species of flowering shrub in the sunflower family, Asteraceae. It is native to North America, from Florida and Texas to Mexico and the Caribbean,[1] and has been introduced to tropical Asia, west Africa, and parts of Australia. Common names include Siam Weed, Christmas Bush, Devil Weed, Camfhur Grass and Common Floss Flower.[2]

Description[edit]

Chromolaena odorata is a rapidly growing perennial herb. It is a multi-stemmed shrub to 2.5 m tall in open areas. It has soft stems but the base of the shrub is woody. In shady areas it becomes etiolated and behaves as a creeper, growing on other vegetation. It can then become up to 10 m tall. The plant is hairy and glandular and the leaves give off a pungent, aromatic odour when crushed. The leaves are opposite, triangular to elliptical with serrated edges. Leaves are 4–10 cms long by 1–5 cms wide. Leaf petioles are 1–4 cms long. The white to pale pink tubular flowers are in panicles of 10 to 35 flowers that form at the ends of branches. The seeds are achenes and are somewhat hairy. They are mostly spread by the wind, but can also cling to fur, clothes and machinery, enabling long distance dispersal. Seed production is about 80000 to 90000 per plant. Seeds need light to germinate. The plant can regenerate from the roots. In favorable conditions the plant can grow more than 3 cms. a day.[3]

Classification[edit]

It was earlier taxonomically classified under the genus Eupatorium, but is now considered more closely related to other genera in the tribe Eupatorieae.[4]

Uses[edit]

It is sometimes grown as a medicinal and ornamental plant. It is used as a traditional medicine in Indonesia. The young leaves are crushed, and the resulting liquid can be used to treat skin wounds.[citation needed] The phytoprostane compound chromomoric acid C-I has been identified from Chromolaena odorata as a strong inducer of the activity of the transcription factor NFE2L2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of a range of genes with defensive, anti-inflammatory, and detoxifying functions.[5]

Invasive Species[edit]

A sign in Kloof encouraging the elimination of Chromolaena odorata, colloquially known as Triffids

Chromolaena odorata is considered an invasive weed of field crops and natural environments in its introduced range.[6] It has been reported to be the most problematic invasive species within protected rainforests in Africa.[7] In Western Africa it prevents regeneration of tree species in areas of shifting cultivation. It affects species diversity in southern Africa. The plants flammability affects forest edges.[8] In Sri Lanka it is a major weed in disturbed areas and coconut plantations.[2] Biological control with a defoliating artiid was started in the 1970s but without success except for Sri Lanka and Guam. In Australia a systematic eradication programme with herbicide has been initiated.[9]

History of Introduction[edit]

In the 19th century Chromolaena odorata escaped from the botanical gardens at Dacca (India), Java (Indonesia) and Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). In Western Africa the plant was accidentally introduced with forestry seeds. It was introduced as an ornamental in Southern Africa, and was introduced to Ivory Coast in 1952 to control Imperata grasses. It was first found in Queensland, Australia in 1994 and was perhaps introduced with foreign pasture seeds.[10]

Toxicity[edit]

Chromolaena odorata contains carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids.[11] It is toxic to cattle.[2] It can also cause allergic reactions.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Chromolaena odorata". Flora of North America. 
  2. ^ a b c Lalith Gunasekera, Invasive Plants: A guide to the identification of the most invasive plants of Sri Lanka, Colombo 2009, p. 116–117.
  3. ^ Lalith Gunasekera, Invasive Plants: A guide to the identification of the most invasive plants of Sri Lanka, Colombo 2009, p. 116–117. ”Siam weed or chromolaena (Chromolaena odorata)” Weed Management Guide at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/publications/guidelines/alert/pubs/c-odorata.pdf and Pierre Binggeli ”Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson (Asteraceae)”, 1997, at http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~afs101/iwpt/web-sp4.htm
  4. ^ GJ Schmidt, EE Schilling (May 2000). "Phylogeny and Biogeography of Eupatorium (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) Based on Nuclear ITS Sequence". American Journal of Botany (Botanical Society of America) 87 (5): 716–726. doi:10.2307/2656858 . JSTOR 2656858. PMID 10811796. 
  5. ^ Heiss EH, Tran TV, Zimmermann K, Schwaiger S, Vouk C, Mayerhofer B, Malainer C, Atanasov AG, Stuppner H, Dirsch VM. Identification of Chromomoric Acid C-I as an Nrf2 Activator in Chromolaena odorata. J Nat Prod. 2014 Jan 29. PubMed PMID: 24476568.
  6. ^ ”Siam weed or chromolaena (Chromolaena odorata)” Weed Management Guide at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/publications/guidelines/alert/pubs/c-odorata.pdf and Pierre Binggeli ”Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson (Asteraceae)”, 1997, at http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~afs101/iwpt/web-sp4.htm
  7. ^ TT Struhsaker, PJ Struhsaker, KS Siex (May 2005). "Conserving Africa’s rain forests: problems in protected areas and possible solutions" (PDF). Biological Conservation 123 (1): 45–54. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2004.10.007 . ISSN 0006-3207. 
  8. ^ ref>Pierre Binggeli ”Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson (Asteraceae)”, 1997, at http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~afs101/iwpt/web-sp4.htm
  9. ^ Pierre Binggeli ”Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson (Asteraceae)”, 1997, at http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~afs101/iwpt/web-sp4.htm ”Siam weed or chromolaena (Chromolaena odorata)” Weed Management Guide at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/publications/guidelines/alert/pubs/c-odorata.pdf
  10. ^ Pierre Binggeli ”Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson (Asteraceae)”, 1997, at http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~afs101/iwpt/web-sp4.htm
  11. ^ Fu, P.P., Yang, Y.C., Xia, Q., Chou, M.C., Cui, Y.Y., Lin G., "Pyrrolizidine alkaloids-tumorigenic components in Chinese herbal medicines and dietary supplements", Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2002, pp. 198-211 [1]
  12. ^ ”Siam weed or chromolaena (Chromolaena odorata)” Weed Management Guide at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/publications/guidelines/alert/pubs/c-odorata.pdf

Further reading[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!