Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Eastern Texas and western Louisiana, southeastern Oklahoma and Miller County, Arkansas.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants to 120 cm (roots fusiform to elongate-turbinate, branched). Herbage sparsely to densely hairy (hairs spreading, to 1.5 mm) or glabrate. Stems mostly green to purplish. Basal leaves: petioles 4–12 cm; blades (1-) or 3-nerved, elliptic to lanceolate, 8–30 × 1–3 cm, bases attenuate, margins entire (usually ciliate). Peduncles 20–50+ cm. Phyllaries lanceolate to ovate, 7–12 × 1–4 mm. Receptacles: paleae 8–11 mm, tips purple, slightly curved, usually rounded. Ray corollas pink to reddish purple, laminae reflexed, 40–70 × 3–4 mm, glabrous or sparsely hairy abaxially. Discs subspheric, 15–30 × 20–30 mm. Disc corollas 5.5–6.7 mm, lobes usually purple. Cypselae tan to bicolored (with distal dark brown band), 2.5–5 mm, faces ± tuberculate, glabrous; pappi to ca. 1 mm (major teeth 0–4). 2n = 22.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Echinacea pallida (Nuttall) Nuttall var. sanguinea (Nuttall) Gandhi & R. D. Thomas
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Sandy acidic soils in open pine woodlands. This species also occurs at roadsides with remnant prairie flora. Partial sun.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Comments: Historically common in eastern Texas and western Louisiana. Still presently common, but easily confused with E. pallida, therefore subject to the general threat of Echinacea wild root digging. Uncommon in southeastern Oklahoma. Rare in Miller County, Arkansas.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: Found in a somewhat restricted range in the southeastern United States, where habitat loss due to logging activities is a threat. Due to its similarity to Echinacea pallida, root digging is a potential but unconfirmed threat. Thought to be common in parts of its range but its status in Louisiana and Texas in particular is very uncertain.

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Global Short Term Trend: Unknown

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Threats

Comments: Human actual threat: Habitat destruction by logging is possibly the biggest threat. Habitat loss is very evident in areas where logging is prevalent in western Louisiana. Where open pine woods have not been clear cut, encroachment is occurring.

Wild harvest is a potential human threat. The phenotype is very similar to E. pallida and it may be subject to digging, but this has not been confirmed.

Natural actual threat: succession.

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Management

Biological Research Needs: Genetic diversity. Taxonomy.

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Wikipedia

Echinacea sanguinea

Echinacea sanguinea (Sanguine Purple Coneflower) is a herbaceous perennial native to open sandy fields and open pine woods and prairies in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Arkansas. It is the southernmost Echinacea species.[1] The specific epithet sanguinea, which is Latin for "blood", refers to the color of the petals.

Echinacea sanguinea grows to 1 m (3 ft) tall with an unbranched stem. The alternate leaves are typically close to the ground, growing 10–25 cm (4–10 in) long and 6 mm (¼ in) wide, with the upper leaves having long hairs. Each stem has one rose-pink to pale purple flower, up to 5 cm (2 in) long and 12 mm (½ in) wide, with 10–20 ray flowers that conspicuously droop. The 2.5 cm (1 in) cone-shaped center is purplish-brown on the outside and greenish toward the center.[2]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Gladstar, Rosemary; Pamela Hirsch (2000). Planting the Future. Bear & Company. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-89281-894-5. 
  2. ^ Loughmiller, Lynn; Lynn Sherrod (1984). Texas Wildflowers. University of Texas Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-292-78060-6. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Described in monograph by R. L. McGregor (1968), and generally accepted (e.g., Kartesz 1994 and 1999). Some taxonomists restrict E. sanguinea to locations south of the Red River (McKeown, K. 1999).

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