Regularity: Regularly occurring
Global Range: Eastern Texas and western Louisiana, southeastern Oklahoma and Miller County, Arkansas.
Comments: Sandy acidic soils in open pine woodlands. This species also occurs at roadsides with remnant prairie flora. Partial sun.
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Comments: Historically common in eastern Texas and western Louisiana. Still presently common, but easily confused with E. pallida, therefore subject to the general threat of Echinacea wild root digging. Uncommon in southeastern Oklahoma. Rare in Miller County, Arkansas.
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Found in a somewhat restricted range in the southeastern United States, where habitat loss due to logging activities is a threat. Due to its similarity to Echinacea pallida, root digging is a potential but unconfirmed threat. Thought to be common in parts of its range but its status in Louisiana and Texas in particular is very uncertain.
Global Short Term Trend: Unknown
Comments: Human actual threat: Habitat destruction by logging is possibly the biggest threat. Habitat loss is very evident in areas where logging is prevalent in western Louisiana. Where open pine woods have not been clear cut, encroachment is occurring.
Wild harvest is a potential human threat. The phenotype is very similar to E. pallida and it may be subject to digging, but this has not been confirmed.
Natural actual threat: succession.
Biological Research Needs: Genetic diversity. Taxonomy.
Echinacea sanguinea (Sanguine Purple Coneflower) is a herbaceous perennial native to open sandy fields and open pine woods and prairies in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Arkansas. It is the southernmost Echinacea species. The specific epithet sanguinea, which is Latin for "blood", refers to the color of the petals.
Echinacea sanguinea grows to 1 m (3 ft) tall with an unbranched stem. The alternate leaves are typically close to the ground, growing 10–25 cm (4–10 in) long and 6 mm (¼ in) wide, with the upper leaves having long hairs. Each stem has one rose-pink to pale purple flower, up to 5 cm (2 in) long and 12 mm (½ in) wide, with 10–20 ray flowers that conspicuously droop. The 2.5 cm (1 in) cone-shaped center is purplish-brown on the outside and greenish toward the center.
Names and Taxonomy
Comments: Described in monograph by R. L. McGregor (1968), and generally accepted (e.g., Kartesz 1994 and 1999). Some taxonomists restrict E. sanguinea to locations south of the Red River (McKeown, K. 1999).
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