Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Ozark Mountains of Missouri and Arkansas (var. paradoxa) and Arbuckle Mountains of southeastern Oklahoma (var. neglecta).

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants to 90 cm (roots fusiform to elongate-turbinate, branched). Herbage sparsely to densely hairy (hairs appressed to ascending). Stems usually yellowish green (usually not branched). Basal leaves: petioles 0–15 cm; blades (3-) or 5-nerved, usually linear or lanceolate, rarely ovate, 5–35 × 0.5–2(–2.5) cm, bases usually attenuate, margins entire (usually ciliate). Peduncles (2–)10–30 cm. Phyllaries lanceolate to ovate, 7–12 × 1–4 mm. Receptacles: paleae 10–14 mm, tips red to orange, often incurved, sharp-pointed. Ray corollas yellow (var. paradoxa) or pinkish to white (var. neglecta), laminae reflexed, 30–70 × 3–8 mm, sparsely hairy abaxially. Discs ovoid to conic, 2–3.5 × 2–3.5 cm. Disc corollas 4.5–6.2 mm, lobes pinkish to yellowish. Cypselae tan or bicolored (with distal dark brown band), 4–5.5 mm, faces ± tuberculate, usually glabrous (angles of ray cypselae hairy distally in var. neglecta); pappi to ca. 1.2 mm (major teeth 0–4).
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Brauneria paradoxa Norton, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 12: 40, plate 8. 1902
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Type Information

Isotype for Brauneria paradoxa Norton
Catalog Number: US 411528
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): B. F. Bush
Year Collected: 1898
Locality: Missouri, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Norton, J. B. S. 1902. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis. 12: 40.
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Isotype for Brauneria paradoxa Norton
Catalog Number: US 411527
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): B. F. Bush
Year Collected: 1898
Locality: Missouri, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Norton, J. B. S. 1902. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis. 12: 40.
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Isotype for Brauneria paradoxa Norton
Catalog Number: US 440001
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): B. F. Bush
Year Collected: 1898
Locality: Missouri, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Norton, J. B. S. 1902. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis. 12: 40.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Savannas, glades, limestone outcroppings, prairie remnants and open wooded hillsides.Partial to full sun.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Comments: Global element occurrence estimate is based on pool of occurrences for both varieties.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G2 - Imperiled

Reasons: Both varieties of Echinacea paradoxa are narrow range endemics (southern Great Plains) and have been wild harvested for root. Seed has also been commercially collected from wild populations in Arkansas and Missouri.

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Threats

Comments: Human actual threat: the digging of root and collection of seed from wild populations. Also, the species may be subject to genetic degradation due to hybridization with other Echinaceas.

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Management

Biological Research Needs: Genetic diversity. Ecology.

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Wikipedia

Echinacea paradoxa

Echinacea paradoxa (Bush's purple coneflower,[1] Yellow Coneflower[2][3]) is a perennial species of flowering plant in the genus Echinacea. Echinacea paradoxa is native to Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, and is listed as threatened in Arkansas.[1]

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Species is generally accepted (e.g., Kartesz 1994 and 1999). Two taxonomic varieties described (McGregor 1968) and accepted by Kartesz. They are morphologically very closely related, but are easily distinguished by ray color, yellow for var. paradoxa and pink for var. neglecta.

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