Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Among the many prairie wildflowers with showy yellow flowerheads, Prairie Coreopsis (Coreopsis palmata) has the advantage of flowering somewhat earlier in the summer than most of them. It also blooms before the warm-season prairie grasses develop rapidly in response to hot summer weather, allowing its flowerheads to be seen from a distance by flower-visiting insects. Prairie Coreopsis can be distinguished from Sand Coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata) by its more deeply lobed and shorter leaves; these leaves are distributed evenly along the stems, while the leaves of Sand Coreopsis are more clustered toward the bottoms of the stems. In contrast, the leaves of Prairie Coreopsis have wider lobes than the leaves of Large-flowered Coreopsis (Coreopsis grandiflora) and Whorled Coreopsis (Coreopsis verticillata). The leaves of these latter two species have lobes that are thread-like, rather than finger-like. Finally, Prairie Coreopsis is a much shorter plant that blooms earlier than Tall Coreopsis (Coreopsis tripteris). In addition, the deeply lobed leaves of this latter species are much larger in size. Return
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Description

This perennial plant is 1–2½' tall and more or less erect. The central stem is unbranched below, while above it branches occasionally. The stems are medium green, terete, and mostly glabrous, except at the bases of leaves, where they have tufts of hair. Pairs of opposite sessile leaves are distributed evenly along the stems. Lobed leaves are 1-3" long and about one-half as much across (in outline), while unlobed leaves are up to 1" long and less than ¼" across; they are widely spreading to ascending. Each leaf is usually divided into 2 lateral lobes and a terminal lobe; some of the uppermost leaves and small axillary leaves lack lobes. Both lateral and terminal lobes are narrowly oblong in shape; the lateral lobes occur toward the middle of each leaf, where they diverge from each other at about a 60º angle. Both unlobed leaves and the bases of lobed leaves are narrowly oblong. The leaf margins are smooth (entire). Upper leaf surfaces are medium to dark green and glabrous, while lower leaf surfaces are medium green and glabrous. The upper stems terminate in either solitary or pairs of flowerheads (usually the former) on peduncles that are more or less erect and about ½–2" long. These peduncles are medium green, terete, and glabrous. Each flowerhead spans about 1½–2" across, consisting of a dense head of numerous disk florets that are surrounded by about 8 ray florets. The tiny corollas of the disk florets are yellow, tubular in shape, and 4-5 lobed. The petaloid rays of the flowerheads are yellow, broadly oblong in shape, and somewhat truncate and ragged along their tips. Surrounding the base of each flowerhead, there are about 8 appressed phyllaries (inner floral bracts) in a single series; these phyllaries are yellowish green, broadly ovate in shape, and about 8 mm. long. Slightly below the base of each flowerhead, there are about 8 outer bracts that are ascending to erect; these outer bracts are green, glabrous, narrowly oblong in shape, and 8-12 mm. long. The blooming period occurs during early summer, lasting about 3 weeks. There is no noticeable floral scent. Afterwards, the florets are replaced by achenes. These achenes are about 5 mm. long, brown or grayish brown, oblong to elliptic-oblong in shape, slightly concave-convex, longitudinally and finely ridged, and hairless; the apices of these achenes are truncate, lacking hairs or significant scales. The root system is fibrous and long-rhizomatous, often forming colonies of clonal plants. During autumn, the deciduous foliage of this plant often acquires reddish tints. Cultivation
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Prairie Coreopsis occurs occasionally in most counties of Illinois, but it is rare or absent in SE Illinois and some western counties (see Distribution Map). Habitats include well-drained black soil prairies, sand prairies, gravel prairies, hill prairies, thickets, open areas of rocky upland forests, savannas, limestone glades, and abandoned fields. Prairie Coreopsis is usually found in high quality natural areas because the dispersion of its seeds is rather limited and it is infrequently cultivated. Faunal Associations
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Perennials, 30–80 cm. Internodes (± mid stem) 25–50 mm. Leaves: petioles 0–1 mm (or 5–25+ mm, winged, and scarcely distinct from blades); blades not 3-foliolate, most with 3(–5+), ± oblong to linear lobes (5–)15–40+ × 2–3(–7+) mm (sometimes some leaves not lobed). Peduncles 1–4+ cm. Calyculi of 9–12+ oblong to lanceolate bractlets 3–9+ mm. Phyllaries 8, ± oblong to nearly orbiculate, 6–10 mm. Ray laminae 15–25+ mm. Disc florets 60–80+; corollas yellow (sometimes drying blackish), 5–6.5 mm. Cypselae oblong, 5–6 mm. 2n = 26.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Prairie Coreopsis occurs occasionally in most counties of Illinois, but it is rare or absent in SE Illinois and some western counties (see Distribution Map). Habitats include well-drained black soil prairies, sand prairies, gravel prairies, hill prairies, thickets, open areas of rocky upland forests, savannas, limestone glades, and abandoned fields. Prairie Coreopsis is usually found in high quality natural areas because the dispersion of its seeds is rather limited and it is infrequently cultivated. Faunal Associations
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Prairie Coreopsis in Illinois

Coreopsis palmata (Prairie Coreopsis)
(Bees collect pollen or suck nectar; beetles feed on pollen & are non-pollinating, or they suck nectar as indicated below; other insects suck nectar; most observations are from Robertson, otherwise they are from Moure & Hurd and Reed as indicated below)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus pensylvanica sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp fq; Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus bifasciatus sn, Epeolus interruptus sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes agilis sn, Melissodes boltoniae sn cp, Melissodes coreopsis sn cp fq olg, Melissodes tepaneca sn fq, Melissodes trinodis sn cp; Anthophoridae (Melectini): Xeromelecta interrupta sn; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada articulata sn, Nomada erigeronis sn, Nomada superba superba sn; Anthophoridae (Pasitidini): Holcopasites illinoiensis sn fq; Megachilidae (Anthidinini): Anthidium maculifrons sn; Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys octodentata sn fq, Coelioxys sayi sn; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile addenda sn, Megachile brevis brevis sn cp icp fq, Megachile latimanus sn, Megachile mendica sn, Megachile montivaga sn, Megachile parallela parallela sn cp, Megachile petulans, Megachile policaris sn cp, Megachile pugnatus sn cp fq, Megachile rugifrons sn; Megachilidae (Osmiinae): Ashmeadiella bucconis sn, Hoplitis pilosifrons sn, Osmia georgica sn cp; Megachilidae (Stelidini): Stelis lateralis sn; Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades leavitti sn cp

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn cp, Agapostemon texanus texanus sn (Rb, Re), Agapostemon virescens (MH), Augochlorella aurata sn cp, Augochlorella striata sn, Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn, Halictus confusus sn cp fq, Halictus ligatus sn cp fq, Halictus rubicunda sn cp, Lasioglossum cinctipes sn cp, Lasioglossum coreopsis sn cp fq, Lasioglossum foxii sn, Lasioglossum obscurus (MH), Lasioglossum pectoralis sn cp, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn cp fq (Rb, MH), Lasioglossum pruinosus sn cp (Rb, MH), Lasioglossum tegularis (MH), Lasioglossum versatus sn cp fq; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena rudbeckiae sn; Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn fq, Heterosarus albitarsis sn

Wasps
Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Bembix americana (Rb, Re), Bicyrtes ventralis, Glenostrictia pictifrons; Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris sp. (Re), Cerceris prominens; Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi, Ammophila nigricans, Ammophila pictipennis, Ammophila procera, Prionyx atrata, Prionyx thomae; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Euodynerus annulatus, Stenodynerus anormis, Stenodynerus histrionalis; Braconidae: Cardiochiles abdominale

Flies
Stratiomyidae: Anoplodonta nigrirostris; Syrphidae: Eristalis flavipes, Eristalis stipator, Eristalis tenax, Eristalis transversus, Helophilus latifrons, Sphaerophoria contiqua, Syrphus ribesii, Toxomerus marginatus (Rb, Re); Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa decora, Exoprosopa meigenii, Parabombylius coquilletti fq, Rhynchanthrax parvicornis, Systoechus vulgaris, Toxophora amphitea; Conopidae: Physocephala tibialis, Thecophora occidensis, Zodion fulvifrons; Tachinidae: Archytas analis, Chetogena claripennis, Cylindromyia fumipennis, Linnaemya comta, Physocephala tibialis, Spallanzania hesperidarum, Tachinomyia panaetius, Thecophora occidensis, Zodion fulvifrons; Muscidae: Neomyia cornicina, Stomoxys calcitrans; Calliphoridae: Lucilia illustris, Lucilia sericata; Anthomyiidae: Leucophora siphonina; Milichiidae: Eusiphona mira

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Phyciodes tharos, Speyeria cybele, Vanessa virginiensis; Lycaenidae: Strymon melinus; Pieridae: Colias philodice, Pieris rapae, Pontia protodice; Papilionidae: Papilio troilus

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Erynnis juvenalis, Pholisora catullus, Poanes zabulon, Polites themistocles

Moths
Ctenuchidae: Cisseps fulvicollis; Noctuidae: Anagrapha falcifera

Beetles
Cerambycidae: Typocerus sinuatus fp np; Meloidae: Epicauta cinereus fp np; Mordellidae: Mordella marginata sn

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Coreopsis palmata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Coreopsis palmata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Coreopsis palmata

Coreopsis palmata is a species of flowering plant in the aster family, Asteraceae It is native to the east-central United States. Its common names include stiff tickseed, wedgeleaf coreopsis,[1] prairie coreopsis,[2] prairie tickseed,[3] and finger coreopsis.[4]

The plant is a perennial herb reaching about 80 centimeters in maximum height. The leaf blades are often lobed, but are not divided into leaflets as in some similar species. The flower heads contain ray florets up to 2.5 centimeters long, or sometimes longer.[5] They are yellow, and generally a paler shade of yellow than related native Coreopsis.[3] The center of the head has many disc florets that bloom yellow and darken as they dry.[5] The plants flower in summer[5] and the herbage may age red in the fall.[4]

The native habitat of this species includes woods and prairie.[4][5]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Coreopsis palmata. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
  2. ^ Coreopsis palmata. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).
  3. ^ a b Coreopsis palmata. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  4. ^ a b c Coreopsis palmata. Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. University of Texas, Austin.
  5. ^ a b c d Coreopsis palmata. Flora of North America.
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