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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Slender annual herb, up to 30 cm. Stems densely covered in long, spreading, often glandular hairs. Leaves opposite with long glandular hairs, particularly on the underside; margin crenate-dentate to subentire. Capitula on slender peduncles, disk florets greenish to yellow; ray florets white, three-lobed.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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This little weed can be identified by the tiny ray florets of the flowerheads – there are only about 5 of these, far fewer in number than the tiny disk florets in the center of the flowerhead. Aside from 'Peruvian Daisy,' other common names for this species include 'Shaggy Soldiers' and 'Common Quickweed,' and Galinsoga ciliata is a scientific synonym by which this species is occasionally referred. There is another weedy species in this genus that is less common in Illinois – this is Galinsoga parviflora (Lesser Peruvian Daisy), which is also native to Central and South America. These two species are very similar to each other in appearance and they prefer similar disturbed habitats. To distinguish them, the achenes of their ray florets should be examined
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Description

This introduced wildflower is a summer annual about ½–2' tall that is sparingly to abundantly branched. The stems have spreading hairs; pairs of opposite leaves occur along these stems. The blades of the leaves are up to 3" long and 2" across; they are medium to dark green, dentate along their margins, and lanceolate to oval-ovate in shape. The upper surfaces of the blades are sparsely to moderately covered with appressed hairs. The slender petioles are up to 1½" long and hairy. Both terminal and axillary cymes of flowerheads are produced from the stems. These small cymes are sparingly branched. Individual flowerheads are about ¼" in across; each flowerhead has 4-6 white ray florets along its margins and numerous yellow disk florets in its center. The ray florets are very short and 3-toothed at their tips. The base of each flowerhead is surrounded by scale-like bracts that are green and oval-ovate in shape; there are approximately 2 outer bracts and several inner bracts per flowerhead. The blooming period occurs during the summer and fall and up to 3 generations of plants can be produced before winter. Both the disk and ray florets are fertile, producing oblanceoloid achenes. At the apex of each achene (whether from a disk or ray floret), there is a pappus of several membranous scales that are usually shorter than the achene. These scales spread outward as the achenes mature and assist in their distribution by wind and water. The scales of the ray florets are a little smaller than those of the disk florets, but nonetheless well-developed. The root system is very fibrous. Peruvian Daisy spreads by reseeding itself. It often forms colonies.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, High Altitude, Naturalized, Native of Tropical America"
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© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

Native to South America and now a near cosmopolitan weed of disturbed places.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Range and Habitat in Illinois

Peruvian Daisy is occasional to locally common throughout Illinois; it is especially common in and around cities in the northern two-thirds of the state. Peruvian Daisy is native to both Central and South America; it has spread to North America, Eurasia, Africa, and some Pacific Islands (including Hawaii). Habitats include abandoned fields, roadsides, gardens, edges of yards, vacant lots, areas along buildings, and waste areas (especially urban). Disturbed areas that are left unmowed or are sparingly mowed provide ideal habitat.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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"Maharashtra: Satara Karnataka: Chikmagalur, Mysore Tamil Nadu: Dindigul, Salem"
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© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

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A cosmopolitan weed, native of Mexico.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants 8–62 cm. Leaf blades 20–60 × 15–45 mm. Peduncles 5–20 mm. Involucres hemispheric to campanulate, 3–6 mm diam. Phyllaries falling. Paleae: outer falling, broadly elliptic to obovate, 2–3 mm; inner falling, linear to lanceolate, 2–3 mm, entire or 2- or 3-lobed, lobes to 1/3 total lengths, blunt. Ray florets (4–)5(–8); corollas usually white, sometimes pink, laminae 0.9–2.5 × 0.9–2 mm. Disc florets 15–35. Cypselae: rays 1.5–2 mm; discs 1.3–1.8 mm; pappi: rays of 6–15 fimbriate scales 0.5–1 mm; discs 0, or of usually 14–20, rarely 1–5, white, lanceolate to oblanceolate, fimbriate, sometimes aristate, scales 0.2–1.7 mm. 2n = 32 [48, 64].
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Elevation Range

1400-1700 m
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

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Synonym

Galinsoga bicolorata H. St. John & D. White; G. caracasana (de Candolle) Schultz-Bipontinus; G. ciliata (Rafinesque) S. F. Blake
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Type Information

Isotype for Galinsoga eligulata Cuatrec.
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Unmounted material
Collector(s): J. Cuatrecasas
Year Collected: 1946
Locality: Chinchiná, terrenos de la granja del "Centro Nacional de Investigaciones del Café", y cercanías de la localidad., Caldas, Colombia, South America
Elevation (m): 1350 to 1400
  • Isotype:
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Isotype for Ageratum perplexans M.F. Johnson
Catalog Number: US 76498
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of original publication
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. Bang
Year Collected: 1890
Locality: Yungas., La Paz, Bolivia, South America
  • Isotype: Johnson, M. F. 1971. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 58: 80.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Type fragment for Galinsoga humboldtii Hieron.
Catalog Number: US 1059392
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): F. W. Humboldt & A. J. A. Bonpland
Locality: Colombia / Ecuador, South America
  • Type fragment: Hieronymus, G. H. 1901. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28: 618.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Isotype for Galinsoga bicolorata H. St. John & D. White
Catalog Number: US 233169
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. W. Nelson
Year Collected: 1895
Locality: Tumbala., Chiapas, Mexico, North America
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1676
  • Isotype: St. John, H. & White, D. 1920. Rhodora. 22: 99.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Peruvian Daisy is occasional to locally common throughout Illinois; it is especially common in and around cities in the northern two-thirds of the state. Peruvian Daisy is native to both Central and South America; it has spread to North America, Eurasia, Africa, and some Pacific Islands (including Hawaii). Habitats include abandoned fields, roadsides, gardens, edges of yards, vacant lots, areas along buildings, and waste areas (especially urban). Disturbed areas that are left unmowed or are sparingly mowed provide ideal habitat.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Associations

Faunal Associations

Little information is available about floral-faunal relationships. The florets can be cross-pollinated by insects, otherwise they are self-fertile.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Galinsoga quadriradiata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Galinsoga quadriradiata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Source: NatureServe

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full or partial sun, moist to mesic conditions, and fertile soil consisting of loam or clay-loam with high levels of nitrogen. This weedy wildflower develops very quickly during warm weather and can reseed itself aggressively.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Wikipedia

Galinsoga quadriradiata

Galinsoga quadriradiata is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family which is known by several common names, including shaggy soldier, hairy galinsoga, and fringed quickweed. It is found throughout most of the temperate world, but apparently its native home is Mexico. In Portuguese-speaking countries where it is widely naturalized - e.g. in Brazil - it is known as botão-de-ouro. As an agricultural weed it can reduce crop yields by up to 50%.[1]

Description[edit]

This is an annual herb which varies in appearance. The main stem reaches anywhere from 10 to 60 centimeters in height and may branch or not. The petioled leaves are oval and serrated and are covered in a coat of soft hairs. The small flower heads are up to a centimeter wide and have rounded center filled with many disc florets usually in a shade of bright yellow. There are five white ray florets widely spaced around the center, each an oval shape with one or two deep notches in the end. The fruit is a small achene with a large pappus.

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Notes

Comments

Tetraploids of Galinsoga quadriradiata are native to Mexico. Higher polyploids are found in South America and differ from the tetraploids by their coarsely crenate-serrate leaves, cylindro-campanulate involucres, and usually reddish purple limbs of ray corollas that extend at right angles to involucres.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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