occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) This species is wide ranging in South America.
Often confused with another species that has been introduced outside of its native range, P. insularum. Also confused with a number of other closely related species including, P. lineata, P. figulina, and P. dolioides.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Pomacea canaliculata is primarily macrophytophagous, but is also known to be a voracious consumer of variety of animals, including other snails. When kept in captivity they are known to consume nearly all plant matter kept in the aquarium and will even prey upon their own young.
In the invaded range they are major consumers of macrophytes often altering the ecosystem states and functions in invaded freshwater habitats.
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300
Comments: It has been introduced into canals and ditches in southeast Florida (Thompson, 1997; 1999). Analysis of COI and ND6 mtDNA markers have confirmed the introduction of this species in Hawaii (Tran et al., 2008) first on Maui (1989) and subsequently on Lanai (Koele golf course) (Cowie, 1996) and latger all main islands including Kaua'i, O'ahu, Molokai'i, Lana'i, Maui, Hawai'i (Cowie et al., 2007).
Life History and Behavior
All ampullariids (apple snails) are dioecious (i.e. have separate sexes). Fertilization is internal with copulations lasting as long a 18 hours. During these copulations the male snail mounts the female's shell posteriorly and crawls up the body whorl (the largest part of the shell) until he reaches the edge of the shell. He then inserts the muscular penis sheath into the pallial cavity of the female. Once the male has inserted the sheath into the pallial cavity of the female, it then extrudes its thin, whip-like penis through the penis sheath canal and inserts it into the females genital opening. It has been reported that the male uses this sheath to secure himself to the female during lengthy copulations, during which the female may continue to move around and even feed. Additionally, the glands of the sheath may be involved in lubrication, adhesion and nuptial feeding.
Like many snails, female apple snails may store sperm for weeks to months, allowing them to produce fertilized eggs even in the absence of a male partner.
Mating is seasonal and triggered by rainfall and temperature. In its native range of Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay P. canaliculata breeds only in the warm summer months. However, outside of their native range, once released from such seasonal fluctuations, P. canaliculata may reproduce year round, particularly in artificial habitats like rice paddies and taro patches.
In Pomacea canaliculata, as in most of the species in the genus Pomacea, females deposit fertilized eggs above the water on emergent vegetation. The developing embryos are surrounded by bright pink/red perivitellins (the major component of the egg yolk) and are encased in a calcareoius shell. The perivitellins are thought to be primarily nutritive, but also serve a protective function, as the pigments block UV light. The calcareous casing prevents desiccation, but remains semi-permeable to allow oxygen penetration. In what seems somewhat odd for a freshwater snail, if the eggs are submerged in water for extended periods the embryos will die. Egg clutches may contain as many as 500 or more eggs. However, this is a small number when compared to the 1000's of eggs often deposited by P. insularum, a closely related species.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Pomacea canaliculata
There are 93 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank. Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species. See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pomacea canaliculata
Public Records: 93
Specimens with Barcodes: 100
Species With Barcodes: 1
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Pomacea canaliculata, common name the channeled applesnail, is a species of large freshwater snail with gills and an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Ampullariidae, the apple snails. South American in origin, this species is considered to be in the top 100 of the "World's Worst Invasive Alien Species".
The shells of these applesnails are globular in shape. Normal coloration typically includes bands of brown, black, and yellowish-tan; color patterns are extremely variable. Albino and gold color variations exist.
The size of the shell is up to 150 mm in length.
The native distribution of P. canaliculata is basically tropical and subtropical, including Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Brazil. The southernmost record for the species is Paso de las Piedras reservoir, south of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina.
This species also occurs in the United States, where the initial introductions were probably from aquarium release, aka "aquarium dumping". The non-indigenous distribution includes: Lake Wawasee in Kosciusko County, Indiana; Langan Park and Three Mile Creek in Mobile, Alabama; a pond bordering the Mobile-Tensaw River Delta in Baldwin County, Alabama; Little Wekiva River, Orlando, Florida; a lake near Jacksonville, Florida; Lake Mirimar in San Diego County, California; and a pond near Yuma, Arizona. Established populations exist in California and Hawaii.
This species lives in freshwater habitats.
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Pomacea canaliculata is extremely polyphagous, feeding on vegetal (primarily macrophytophagous, feeding on floating or submersed higher plants), detrital, and animal matter. Diet may vary with age, with younger smaller individuals feeding on algae and detritus, and older, bigger (15mm and above) individuals later shifting to higher plants.
In temperate climates, the egg-laying period of this species extends from early spring to early fall. while in tropical areas reproduction is continuous. The duration of the reproductive period of P. canaliculata decreases with latitude, to a minimum of six months in the southern limit of its natural distribution.
This species is edible. In China and Southeast Asia, consumption of raw or undercooked snails of Pomacea canaliculata and other snails is the primary route of infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis causing angiostrongyliasis.
In Northeast Thailand, these snails are collected and consumed. They are picked by hand or with a handnet from canals, swamps, ponds and flooded rice paddy fields during the rainy season. During the dry season when these snails are concealed under dried mud, collectors use a spade to scrape the mud in order to find them. The snails are usually collected by women and children. After collection, the snails are cleaned and parboiled. They are then taken out of their shells, cut, and cleaned in salted water. After rinsing with water, they are mixed with roasted rice, dried chili, lime juice, and fish sauce, and then eaten.
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|Wikinews has related news: South American channeled apple snail discovered in Georgia|
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