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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Lindernia dubia var. anagallidea (Michx.) Cooperr.

Distribution

Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).

Notes

Rare. Jun–Sep . Thornhill 1510 (NCSC). [= Lindernia anagallidea (Michx.) Pennell sensu RAB; = Weakley]

  • Thornhill, Robert, Krings, Alexander, Lindbo, David, Stucky, Jon (2014): Guide to the Vascular Flora of the Savannas and Flatwoods of Shaken Creek Preserve and Vicinity (Pender & Onslow Counties, North Carolina, U. S. A.). Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1099: 1099-1099, URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.2.e1099
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Plazi

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Comments

This wildflower is rather cute-looking when it is viewed up-close. It resembles several other members of the Figwort (or Snapdragon) family that are small-sized and prefer wetland habitats. Plants in this group have small tubular corollas and ovoid seed capsules; their corollas lack nectar spurs. It is difficult to distinguish False Pimpernel from Lindernia anagallidea (Slender False Pimpernel), except the latter has pedicels that are longer than the leaves. Some authorities consider the latter species to be a variety of False Pimpernel. False Pimpernel is also somewhat similar to Gratiola spp. (Hedge Hyssops) with white or pale violet corollas. However, there is a pair of slender bractlets underneath each flower of the Hedge Hyssops, while the flowers of Lindernia spp. (False Pimpernels) lack such bractlets.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Description

This native plant is a summer annual about 4-8" tall that branches occasionally. The stems are light green to reddish green, 4-angled, and hairless. The opposite leaves are up to 1½" long and ¾" across; they are oval-ovate in shape, light green to reddish green, hairless, and smooth along the margins or bluntly dentate. The upper surface of each leaf has 3-5 pale veins, while the base of each leaf is sessile or has a short petiole. Individual flowers are produced from the axils of the upper leaves (one flower per axil). Each flower is up to 1/3" long, consisting of a tubular calyx with 5 linear teeth and a tubular corolla that curves slightly downward. The calyx is light green to reddish green and hairless. The corolla is white, pale violet, or a combination of these two colors. The upper lip of the corolla has 2 small lobes that function as a protective hood, while the lower lip of the corolla has 3 lobes that are rounded and spreading. Inside the corolla, there are 2 fertile stamens, 2 sterile stamens, and a single style. The slender pedicel of each flower is up to 1" long; it is usually shorter than the leaf underneath the flower. The blooming period occurs during the summer and early fall and can last 2-3 months for a colony of plants. There is no noticeable floral scent. Each flower is replaced by a narrowly ovoid or spindle-shaped seed capsule containing several small seeds. Mature seed capsules are about as long as the teeth of the calyx or slightly longer. The root system consists of a branching taproot. This plant reproduces by reseeding itself and occasionally forms colonies.
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

False Pimpernel is fairly common in most areas of Illinois, although it is easily overlooked (see Distribution Map). Habitats include muddy borders of ponds and streams, gravelly seeps, sandbars in rivers, moist open woodlands, and ditches. This small plant typically occurs in wet areas with low vegetation that are prone to flooding during the spring.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annuals to 25 cm tall, diffuse, glabrous throughout except calyx. Stems purple, quadrangular, rooting at lower nodes, much branched. Leaves sessile, elliptic, 1-1.5 cm X 3-6 mm, decreasing in size upward, base rounded to cuneate, apex acute; veins 3-5, only primary vein conspicuous. Flowers axillary, solitary, in panicles. Pedicel slender, 1-2 cm. Calyx ca. 3 mm; lobes free to base, ca. 0.5 mm wide, hispidulous above, apex acuminate, obscurely 3-veined. Corolla white or pale blue, ca. 6.5 mm; lower lip 3-lobed; upper lip galeate, shallowly 2-lobed, lobes sharply pointed. Fertile stamens 2, posterior; staminodes 2, clavate, unappendaged, apex obtuse. Style ca. 3.5 mm. Capsule oblong, ca. 4 X 2.3 mm, rounded at both ends. Seeds ellipsoid.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Gratiola dubia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 17. 1753; G. anagallidea Michaux; Lindernia anagallidea (Michaux) Pennell; L. dubia var. anagallidea (Michaux) Cooperrider.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

False Pimpernel is fairly common in most areas of Illinois, although it is easily overlooked (see Distribution Map). Habitats include muddy borders of ponds and streams, gravelly seeps, sandbars in rivers, moist open woodlands, and ditches. This small plant typically occurs in wet areas with low vegetation that are prone to flooding during the spring.
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Depth range based on 8 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 1
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Habitat & Distribution

Shallow water; low elevations. Guangdong, Taiwan [native to North America]
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Associations

Faunal Associations

The flowers are visited by Halictid bees and other small bees for nectar and pollen. Small butterflies and skippers also visit the flowers for nectar. The low foliage of this plant along the margins of streams and ponds provides cover for frogs and turtles. This kind of vegetation enables such animals to blend into the background, while allowing them to see the approach of prey or predators.
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Flower-Visiting Insects of False Pimpernel in Illinois

Lindernia dubia (False Pimpernel)
(Short-tongued bees suck or collect pollen, other insects suck nectar; observations are from Robertson)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Lasioglossum imitatus sn cp, Lasioglossum obscurus sn, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp fq; Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn

Butterflies
Lycaenidae: Everes comyntas; Pieridae: Colias philodice, Eurema lisa

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Ancyloxypha numitor, Staphylus hayhurstii

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lindernia dubia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T4 - Apparently Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T4 - Apparently Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full or partial sun, wet to moist conditions, and soil that is muddy, sandy, or gravelly.
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Wikipedia

Lindernia dubia

Lindernia dubia is a species of flowering plant known by the common names yellowseed false pimpernel and moist bank pimpernel. It is a member of the "new" plant family Linderniaceae, and it is sometimes treated as a member of the families Scrophulariaceae and Plantaginaceae. It is native to much of the Americas from Canada to Chile, and it can be found on other continents as an introduced species. It grows in wet habitat, such as riverbanks, pond margins, and meadows. It is an annual herb growing a mostly erect, branching stem to exceed 30 centimeters in height. The oppositely arranged leaves vary in size and shape, from lance-shaped to oval, toothed or not, and under one to over three centimeters long. Flowers emerge from upper leaf axils. Each has a calyx of five narrow, linear sepals. The tubular corolla is up to a centimeter long, white in color with a blue or purple tint, and lipped at the mouth, the lower lip with three rounded lobes. The fruit is a capsule containing yellow seeds.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lindernia dubia from USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Provided by NRCS National Wetland Team, Fort Worth, TX.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Schuyler (intertidals Phila. area, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1980) considers merely a tidal form of Lindernia dubia, not taxonomically significant. Maintained by Kartesz, checklist 1994.

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