The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Histoire Naturelle et Médicale de la Famille des Valérianées 57. 1811. (Hist. Nat. Valér.)
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Repertorium Botanices Systematicae. 2: 527. 1843. (Repert. Bot. Syst.)
  • Rhodora 40(473): 201, pl. 493, f. 10. 1938. (Rhodora)
  • Rhodora 40(473): 206–207, pl. 494, f. 14. 1938. (Rhodora)
  • Rhodora 40(473): 207, pl. 494, f. 15. 1938. (Rhodora)
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Valerianaceae of North America Update
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.


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