The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


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    1. Ahuja, M. R. 1984. A commercially feasible micropropagation  method for aspen. Silvae Genetica 33:174-176.
    3. Alban, David H. 1982. Effect of nutrient accumulation by  aspen, spruce, and pine on soil properties. Soil Science  Society of America Journal 46:853-861.
    5. Alban, D. H., D. A. Perala, and B. E. Schlaegel. 1978.  Biomass and nutrient distribution in aspen, pine, and spruce  stands on the same soil type in Minnesota. Canadian Journal  of Forest Research 8:290-299.
    7. Anderson, Neil A., Michael E. Ostry, and Gerald W.  Anderson. 1979. Insect wounds as infection sites for Hypoxylon  mammatum on trembling aspen. Phytopathology 69:476-479. 
    9. Anderson, Ralph L., Gerald W. Anderson, and Arthur L.  Schipper, Jr. 1979. Hypoxylon canker of aspen. USDA Forest  Service, Forest Insect and Disease Leaflet 6. Washington,  DC. 7 p.
    11. Andrejak, Gary E., and Burton V. Barnes. 1969. A seedling  population of aspens in southeastern Michigan. The Michigan  Botanist 8:189-202.
    13. Barnes, Burton V. 1958. Erste Aufnahme eines sechsjährigen  Bestandes von Aspenhybriden. [First survey of a six-year-old  stand of hybrid aspen.] Silvae Genetica 7:98-102.
    15. Barnes, Burton V. 1961. Hybrid aspens in the Lower  Peninsula of Michigan. Rhodora. 63:311-324.
    17. Barnes, Burton V. 1966. The clonal growth habit of American  aspens. Ecology 47:439-447.
    19. Barnes, Burton V. 1969. Natural variation and delineation of  clones of Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata  in northern Lower Michigan. Silvae Genetica 18:130-142. 
    21. Barnes, Burton V. 1975. Phenotypic variation of trembling  aspen in western North America. Forest Science 21:319-328. 
    23. Barnes, Burton V. 1978. Pollen abortion in Betula and  Populus (Section Leuce). The Michigan Botanist 17:167-172. 
    25. Barnes, Burton V., and Kurt S. Pregitzer. 1985. Occurrence  of hybrids between bigtooth and trembling aspen in Michigan.  Canadian Journal of Botany 63:1888-1890.
    27. Barry, W. J., and R. M. Sachs. 1968. Vegetative propagation  of quaking aspen. California Agriculture 22(l):14-16.
    29. Bella, 1. E. 1986. Logging practices and subsequent  development of aspen stands in east-central Saskatchewan.  Forestry Chronicle 62:81-83.
    31. Bella, I. E., and J. P. DeFranceschi. 1980 Biomass  productivity of young aspen stands in western Canada.  Environment Canada Forestry Service, Information Report  NOR-X-219. Northern Forest Research Centre,  Edmonton, AB. 23 p.
    33. Berrang, P., D. F. Karnosky, R. A. Mickler, and J.P.  Bennett. 1986. Natural selection for ozone tolerance in  Populus tremuloides. Canadian Journal of Forest  Research 16:1214-1216.
    35. Boyle, James R., John J. Phillips, and Alan R. Ek. 1973. "Whole  tree" harvesting: nutrient budget evaluation. Journal  of Forestry 71:760-762.
    37. Brinkman, Kenneth A., and Eugene 1. Roe. 1975. Quaking  aspen: silvics and management in the Lake States. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 486.  Washington, DC. 52 p.
    39. Brissette, John C., and Burton V. Barnes. 1984. Comparisons  of phenology and growth of Michigan and western North  American sources of Populus tremuloides. Canadian  Journal of Forest Research 14:789-793.
    41. Brown, James K., and Dennis G. Simmerman. 1986. Appraising  fuels and flammability in western aspen: a prescribed fire  guide. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report  INT-205. Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT. 48 p. 
    43. Cheliak, W. M., and J. A. Pitel. 1984. Electrophoretic  identification of clones in trembling aspen. Canadian  Journal of Forest Research 14:740-743.
    45. Copony, James A., and Burton V. Barnes. 1974. Clonal  variation in the incidence of Hypoxylon canker on trembling  aspen. Canadian Journal of Botany 52:1475-1481.
    47. Coyne, Patrick I., and Keith Van Cleve. 1977. Fertilizer  induced morphological and chemical responses of a quaking  aspen stand in Interior Alaska. Forest Science 23:92-102. 
    49. Crouch, Glen L. 1986. Aspen regeneration in 6- to  10-year-old clearcuts in southwestern Colorado. USDA Forest  Service, Research Note RM-467. Rocky Mountain Forest and  Range Experiment Station. Fort Collins, CO. 4 p.
    51. Czapowskyj, Miroslaw M., and Lawrence 0. Safford. 1979.  Growth response to fertilizer in a young aspen-birch stand.  USDA Forest Service, Research Note NE-274. Northeastern  Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 6 p.
    53. DeByle, Norbert V. 1964. Detection of functional intraclonal  aspen root connections by tracers and excavation. Forest  Science 10:386-396.
    55. DeByle, Norbert V., and Robert P. Winokur, eds. 1985. Aspen:  ecology and management in the western United States. USDA  Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-119. Rocky  Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins,  CO. 283 p.
    57. Einspahr, Dean W., Miles K. Benson, and Marianne L. Harder.  1972. Influence of irrigation and fertilization on growth  and wood properties of quaking aspen. p. 11-19. In  Proceedings, Symposium on the Effects of Growth Acceleration  on Properties of Wood, November 10-11, 1971, Madison, WI. 
    59. Every, A. D., and D. Wiens. 1971. Triploidy in Utah aspen.  Madroño 21:138-147.
    61. Farmer, Michele M., and Burton V. Barnes. 1978.  Morphological variation of families of trembling aspen in  southeastern Michigan. The Michigan Botanist 17:141-153. 
    63. Fechner, Gilbert H., Karen E. Burr, and Joseph F. Myers.  1981. Effects of storage, temperature, and moisture stress  on seed germination and early seedling development  of trembling aspen. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  11:718-722.
    65. Geraghty, James A., David W. Miller, Frits VanDerLeeden, and  Fred L. Troise. 1973. Water atlas of the United States.  Water Information Center, Port Washington, NY. Unpaged, 122  plates.
    67. Gifford, Gerald F., William Humphries, and Richard A.  Jaynes. 1984. A preliminary quantification of the impacts of  aspen to conifer succession on water yield-H. Modeling  results. Water Resources Bulletin 20:181-186.
    69. Graham, Samuel A., Robert P. Harrison, Jr., and Casey E.  Westell, Jr. 1963. Aspens: Phoenix trees of the  Great Lakes region. University of Michigan Press,  Ann Arbor, MI. 272 p.
    71. Grant, Michael C., and Jeffrey B. Mitton. 1979. Elevational  gradients in adult sex ratios and sexual differentiation in  vegetative growth rates of Populus tremuloides Michx.  Evolution 33:914-918.
    73. Greene, K. Alan, J. C. Zasada, and K. Van Cleve. 1971. An  albino aspen sucker. Forest Science 17:272.
    75. Gregory, Robert A., and Paul M. Haack. 1965. Growth and  yield of well-stocked aspen and birch stands in Alaska. USDA  Forest Service, Research Paper NOR-2. Northern Forest  Experiment Station, Juneau, AK. 27 p.
    77. Hinds, Thomas E., and Thomas H. Laurent. 1978. Common aspen  diseases found in Alaska. Plant Disease Reporter 62:972-975. 
    79. Hinds, Thomas E., and Wayne D. Shepperd. 1987. Aspen sucker  damage and defect in Colorado clearcut areas. USDA Forest  Service, Research Paper RM-278. Rocky Mountain Forest and  Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 12 p.
    81. Hinds, Thomas E., and Eugene M. Wengert. 1977. Growth and  decay losses in Colorado aspen. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper RM-193. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 10 p.
    83. Hunt, F. A. 1986. National register of big trees. American  - Forests 92(4):21-52.
    85. Jones, John R. 1974. Silviculture of southwestern mixed  conifers and aspen: the status of our knowledge. USDA Forest  Service, Research Paper RM-122. Rocky Mountain Forest and  Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 44 p.
    87. Jones, John R., and David P. Trujillo. 1975. Development of  some young aspen stands in Arizona. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper RM-151. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 11 p.
    89. Kemperman, J. A. 1976. Aspen clones: development,  variability, and identification. Ontario Ministry of Natural  Resources, Division of Forests, Forest Research Branch,  Forest Research Information Paper 10 1. Ottawa, ON. I I p. 
    91. Kemperman, Jerry A., and Burton V. Barnes. 1976. Clone size  in American aspens. Canadian Journal of Botany 54:2603-2607. 
    93. Krasny, Marianne E., Kristina A. Vogt, and John C. Zasada.  1988. Establishment of four Salicaceae species on river bars  in interior Alaska. Holarctic Ecology 11:210-219.
    95. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1971. Atlas of United States trees,  vol. 1. Conifers and important hardwoods. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1146. Washington, DC.  9 p., 313 maps.
    97. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States  trees (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. Washington, DC. 375  p.
    99. McDonough, W. T. 1979. Quaking aspen-seed germination and  early seedling growth. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper  INT-234. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station,  Ogden, UT. 13 p.
    101. Maini, J. S., and J. H. Cayford, eds. 1968. Growth and  utilization of poplars in Canada. Department of Forestry and  Rural Development, Forestry Branch, Departmental Publication  1205. Ottawa, ON. 257 p.
    103. Meyer, J. F., and G. H. Fechner. 1980. Seed hairs and seed  germination in Populus. Tree Planters'Notes 30 (3):3-4. 
    105. Ohmann, L. F., H. 0. Batzer, R. R. Buech, and others. 1978.  Some harvest options and their consequences for the aspen,  birch, and associated conifer forest types of the Lake  States. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report NC-48.  North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 34 p. 
    107. Page, G. 1972. The occurrence and growth of trembling aspen  in Newfoundland. Canada Forestry Service, Publication 1314.  Ottawa, ON. 15 p.
    109. Patton, David R., and John R. Jones. 1977. Managing aspen  for wildlife in the Southwest. USDA Forest Service, General  Technical Report RM-37. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 7 p.
    111. Perala, Donald A. 1974. Prescribed burning in an aspen-mixed  hardwood forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  4:222-228.
    113. Perala, Donald A. 1977. Manager's handbook for aspen in the  North-Central States. USDA Forest Service, General Technical  Report NC-36. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St.  Paul, MN. 30 p.
    115. Perala, Donald A. 1978. Thinning strategies for aspen: a  prediction model. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper  NC-161. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul,  MN. 19 p.
    117. Perala, Donald A. 1989. Data on file. USDA Forest Service,  North Central Forest Experiment Station, Grand Rapids, MN. 
    119. Perala, Donald A., and James Russell. 1983. Aspen. In  Silvicultural systems for the major forest types of the  United States. p. 113-115. Russell M. Burns, tech. comp.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 445.  Washington, DC.
    121. Roberts, Mark R., and Curtis J. Richardson. 1985. Forty-one  years of population change and community succession in aspen  forests on four soil types, northern lower Michigan, U.S.A.  Canadian Journal of Botany 63:1641-1651.
    123. Schier, George A. 1978. Vegetative propagation of Rocky  Mountain aspen. USDA Forest Service, General Technical  Report INT-44. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment  Station, Ogden, UT. 13 p.
    125. Schier, George A. 1981. Physiological research on  adventitious shoot development in aspen roots. USDA Forest  Service, General Technical Report INT-107. Intermountain  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 12 p.
    127. Schier, George A., and Robert B. Campbell. 1978. Aspen  sucker regeneration following burning and clearcutting on  two sites in the Rocky Mountains. Forest Science 24:303-308. 
    129. Schier, George A., and Arthur D. Smith. 1979. Sucker  regeneration in a Utah aspen clone after clearcutting,  partial cutting, scarification, and girdling. USDA Forest  Service, Research Note INT-253. Intermountain Forest and  Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 6 p.
    131. Schreiner, Ernst J. 1974. Populus L. Poplar. In Seeds of  woody plants in the United States. p. 645-655. C. S.  Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC.
    133. Scott, Virgil E., and Glenn L. Crouch. 1987. Response of  breeding birds to commercial clearcutting of aspen in  southwestern Colorado. USDA Forest Service, Research Note  RM-475. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station,  Fort Collins, CO. 5 p.
    135. Sepik, Greg F., Ray B. Owen, Jr., and Malcolm W. Coulter.  1981. A landowner's guide to woodcock management in the  Northeast. University of Maine Life Sciences and Agriculture  Experiment Station, Miscellaneous Report 253. Orono. 23 p. 
    137. Shepperd, Wayne D. 1986. Silviculture of aspen forests in  the Rocky Mountains and the Southwest. USDA Forest Service,  RM-TT-7. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station,  Fort Collins, CO. 38 p.
    139. Shepperd, Wayne D., and Orville Engelby. 1983. Rocky  Mountain Aspen. In Silvicultural systems for the  major forest types of the United States. p. 77-79. Russell  M. Burns, tech. comp. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 445. Washington, DC.
    141. Shields, W. J., Jr., and J. G. Bockheim. 1981. Deterioration  of trembling aspen clones in the Great Lakes region.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 11:530-537.
    143. Society of American Foresters. 1980. Forest cover  types of the United States and Canada. F. H. Eyre, ed.  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    145. Spurr, Stephen H., and Burton V. Barnes. 1980. Forest  ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 687 p,
    147. Stanosz, G. R., and R. F. Patton. 1987. Armillaria root rot  in Wisconsin aspen sucker stands. Canadian Journal of Forest  Research 17(9):995-1000.
    149. Steneker, G. A. 1976. Guide to the silvicultural management  of trembling aspen in the prairie provinces. Environment  Canada Forestry Service, Information Report NOR-X-164.  Northern Forest Research Centre, Edmonton, AB. 6 p.
    151. Steneker, G. A., and R. E. Wall. 1970. Aspen clones: their  significance and recognition. Canadian Forestry Service,  Department of Fisheries and Forestry Liaison and Service  Note MS-L-8. Forest Research Laboratory, Winnipeg, MB. 10 P. 
    153. Stiell, W. M., and A. B. Berry. 1986. Productivity of  short-rotation aspen stands. Forestry Chronicle 62:10-15. 
    155. Strothmann, R. 0., and Z. A. Zasada. 1965. Quaking aspen  (Populus tremuloides Michx.). In Silvics of forest  trees of the United States. p. 523-534. H. A. Fowells, comp.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271.  Washington, DC.
    157. Sucoff, Edward. 1982. Water relations of the aspens.  University of Minnesota Agriculture Experiment Station,  Technical Bulletin 338. St. Paul. 36 p.
    159. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1941. Climate and man. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Yearbook of Agriculture 1941.  Washington, DC. 1248 p.
    161. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1972. Aspen:  Symposium Proceedings. USDA Forest Service, General  Technical Report NC-I. North Central Forest Experiment  Station, St. Paul, MN. 154 p.
    163. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1976.  Utilization and marketing as tools for aspen management  in the Rocky Mountains: Proceedings of the Symposium. USDA  Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-29. Rocky  Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins,  CO. 120 p.
    165. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service.  1975. Soil taxonomy: a basic system of soil classification  for making and interpreting soil surveys. Soil Survey Staff,  coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook  436. Washington, DC. 754 p.
    167. Van Cleve, Keith. 1973. Short-term growth response to  fertilization in young quaking aspen. Journal of Forestry  71:758-759.
    169. Viereck, Leslie A., and Elbert L. Little, Jr. 1972. Alaska  trees and shrubs. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 410. Washington, DC. 265 p.
    171. Vozzo, J. A., and Edward Hacskaylo. 1974. Endo- and  ectomycorrhizal associations in five Populus species.  Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 101:182-186.
    173. Weingartner, D. H., and J. T. Basham. 1985. Variations in  the growth and defect of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.)  clones in northern Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Natural  Resources, Forest Research Report 111. Maple. 26 p.
    175. Witter, J. A. 1979. The forest tent caterpillar  (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) in Minnesota: a case history  review. The Great Lakes Entomologist 12(4):141-197.
    177. Witter, J. A., and L. A. Waisanen. 1978. The effect of  differential flushing times among trembling aspen clones on  tortricid caterpillar populations. Environmental Entomology  7:139-143.
    179. Witter, J. A., W. J. Mattson, and H. M. Kulman. 1975.  Numerical analysis of a forest tent caterpillar  (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) outbreak in northern Minnesota.  Canadian Entomologist 107:837-854.
    181. Zasada, John C. 1989. Personal correspondence. USDA Forest  Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment  Station, Corvallis, OR.
    183. Zasada, J. C., and R. A. Densmore. 1977. Changes in seed  viability during storage for selected Alaskan Salicaceae.  Seed Science and Technology 5:509-518.
    185. Zasada, John C., Rodney A. Norum, Christian E. Teutsch, and  Roseann Densmore. 1987. Survival and growth of planted black  spruce, alder, aspen and willow after fire on black  spruce/feather moss sites in interior Alaska. Forestry  Chronicle 63:84-88.


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