Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Because Hoary Puccoon (Lithospermum canescens) begins to bloom during the spring when other ground vegetation is relatively low, the brightly colored flowers can be seen from a distance. The word 'puccoon' means that this plant was the source of a dye at one time – a reddish color that was used by Amerindians for pottery, basketry, and personal ornament in various ceremonies. Hoary Puccoon is one of three native puccoon species (Lithospermum spp.) in Illinois that have flowers with bright yellow or yellow-orange corollas. Unlike Fringed Puccoon (Lithospermum incisum), the corolla lobes of Hoary Puccoon are smooth, rather than fringed, and it has wider leaves (exceeding ¼" across). Compared to Hairy Puccoon (Lithospermum croceum), Hoary Puccoon is a smaller plant with smaller flowers – it also blooms earlier in the year. Unlike the preceding two species, the corollas of Hoary Puccoon are sometimes yellow-orange, rather than yellow. Return
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Description

This perennial plant is about ½-1½' tall, sending up one or more leafy stems from the same root system. These stems are erect to ascending; they are unbranched below, while branching occasionally above. Individual stems are light green, terete, and hairy; these hairs are white and spreading. Alternate leaves occur along the entire length of each stem, differing little in size. These leaves are 1–1¾" long and ¼–½" across with prominent central veins; they are oblong or elliptic in shape, while their margins are entire (toothless) and ciliate. The leaf bases are sessile, while the leaf tips are bluntly acute to rounded. The upper leaf surfaces are medium to dark green and sparsely to moderately covered with short appressed hairs. The lower leaf surfaces are light to medium green and sparsely to densely pubescent; hairs are usually more common along the lower side of their central veins. The white hairs and pubescence of this plant provide it with a slightly hoary appearance, hence the common name. The upper stems terminate in showy clusters of flowers. Initially these flowers are arranged along short curled racemes, but somewhat later these racemes become longer and more erect. Each flower spans about ½" across, consisting of a bright yellow to orange-yellow corolla with 5 lobes, a light green calyx with 5 long teeth, 5 stamens, and a 4-chambered pistil with a single style. The lobes of the corolla are rounded and spreading, while the base of the corolla is narrowly tubular and slightly funnelform. Both the calyx and its teeth are hairy; the teeth are linear-lanceolate in shape and up to ¼" long. The reproductive organs of this plant are heterostylous
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Hoary Puccoon occurs throughout Illinois, except in some SE areas of the state (see Distribution Map). This conservative plant is occasional in high quality natural areas (primarily upland prairies and savannas), otherwise it is rare or absent. Habitats include black soil prairies, sand prairies, hill prairies, upland savannas, sandy Black Oak savannas, and limestone glades. This is the most common and widely distributed species of its genus in Illinois. Faunal Associations
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Hoary Puccoon occurs throughout Illinois, except in some SE areas of the state (see Distribution Map). This conservative plant is occasional in high quality natural areas (primarily upland prairies and savannas), otherwise it is rare or absent. Habitats include black soil prairies, sand prairies, hill prairies, upland savannas, sandy Black Oak savannas, and limestone glades. This is the most common and widely distributed species of its genus in Illinois. Faunal Associations
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Hoary Puccoon in Illinois

Lithospermum canescens (Hoary Puccoon)
(Bees collect pollen or suck nectar; beetle activity is unspecified; other insects suck nectar; most observations are from Robertson, otherwise they are from Reed, Grundel & Pavlovic, Macior, and MacRae as indicated below)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Bombini): Bombus fervida sn (Mc), Bombus fraternus sn, Bombus griseocallis sn (Mc), Bombus impatiens sn (Rb, Mc), Bombus pensylvanica sn fq; Anthophoridae (Anthophorini): Anthophora ursina sn fq; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Synhalonia belfragei sn, Synhalonia illinoensis sn, Synhalonia speciosa sn fq icp; Anthophoridae (Melectini): Melecta thoracica sn fq; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada obliterata sn, Nomada ovatus sn, Nomada superba superba sn; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Osmia atriventris sn cp fq, Osmia cordata sn, Osmia distincta sn cp, Osmia illinoensis sn cp fq

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Lasioglossum pectoralis (Re), Lasioglossum pilosus (Re)

Flies
Bombyliidae: Bombylius atriceps sn, Bombylius major sn fq

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Chlosyne nycteis sn, Phyciodes tharos sn, Vanessa atalanta sn, Vanessa virginiensis sn; Lycaenidae: Lycaeides melissa samuelis sn (GP), Lycaena hyllus sn; Pieridae: Colias philodice sn fq, Pieris rapae sn; Papilionidae: Papilio marcellus sn fq, Papilio polyxenes asterias sn

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Erynnis baptisiae sn, Erynnis brizo sn, Erynnis icelus sn fq, Erynnis juvenalis sn, Erynnis martialis sn, Hesperia leonardus leonardus sn (Re), Pholisora catullus sn

Moths
Noctuidae: Anagrapha falcifera sn

Beetles
Buprestidae: Acmaeodera ornata (McR), Acmaeodera tubulus (McR)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Lithospermum canescens

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lithospermum canescens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Lithospermum canescens

Lithospermum canescens is a species of flowering plant known by the common name Hoary Puccoon. It is endemic to eastern North America. The plant has golden yellow flowers which bloom from April to May.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Lithospermum canescens". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 2009-04-06. 
  2. ^ Carman, Jack B. (2001). Wildflowers of Tennessee. Highland Rim Press. p. 212. 
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