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Overview

Comprehensive Description

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Because of the small size of its flowers, Water Speedwell is relatively inconspicuous. This is one of the wetland Veronica spp., rather than one of the weedy Veronica spp. that are found in lawns and along roadsides. Because of the variations of local populations across its wide distribution, Water Speedwell has an unstable taxonomic history. Some authorities refer to this species as Veronica catenata, Veronica comosa, and other scientific names. Because it is not uncommon to find specimens with mixed characteristics and there is a lack of consensus among authorities, these postulated species have been lumped together as variations of Veronica anagallis-aquatica. Water Speedwell differs from other wetland Veronica spp. by the large number of flowers/capsules per raceme (20-65) and its sessile or clasping leaves. It is much larger in size than the weedy Veronica spp. that are found on lawns and roadsides; species in this latter group usually produce individual flowers from the axils of the leaves, rather than racemes of numerous flowers.
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Description

This native perennial wildflower is ½–2½' tall, branching occasionally. The stems are light green, terete, glabrous, and rather stout; sometimes there is a ring of purple where pairs of leaves join the stem. The opposite leaves are up to 4" long and 1½" across; they are lanceolate, elliptic, oblanceolate, or ovate in shape and either smooth or serrated along their margins. The leaf bases are sessile or clasp the stem. The upper surfaces of the leaves are medium green and hairless, while their lower surfaces are pale to medium green and hairless. Both axillary and terminal racemes of flowers are produced; individual racemes have 20-65 flowers and they are 2-6" long. Individual flowers span about ¼" across, consisting of a green calyx with 4 lanceolate teeth, a pale blue or lavender corolla with 4 petaloid lobes, 2 stamens, and a pistil with a single style. Fine dark blue or purple lines radiate from the center of the corolla, which is slightly white or yellowish green. The slender ascending pedicels are about ¼" long. At the base of each pedicel, there is a linear green bract of the same length or a little shorter. The central stalk of each raceme, the pedicels, and the calyces of the flowers are either glabrous or glandular-pubescent. The blooming period occurs from late spring to late summer and lasts about 2-3 months. On each raceme, only a few flowers are in bloom at the same time. Each flower is replaced by a 2-celled seed capsule that is about ¼" long, ovoid, slightly flattened, and slightly notched at its apex; the outer surface of the capsule is either glabrous or glandular-pubescent. Each cell of the capsule contains several tiny seeds, which are distributed to some extent by either wind or water. After the fertile shoots die down, they are replaced by sterile shoots during the fall. These sterile shoots consist of low rosettes of oval leaves that taper to winged petioles. The root system is fibrous and either rhizomatous or stoloniferous. This wildflower reproduces vegetatively and sexually.
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Description

Veronica catenata is A glabrous perennial herb with ascending stems. The leaves are 3-4.5 x 1.5-2.5 cm, sessile, linear-lanceolate, with dentate margins, acute, rarely obtuse apex, and cordate-amplexicaul at the base. Flowers are small, with white, pink or blue-lavender, tubular with 4 rounded-diamond shaped petals; the upper lobe is streaked with darker purple at the base, and the lower lobe is smaller than the others; they are fused at the base forming a short tube, greenish on the inside of the throat. The flowers are grouped in racemes at the top of the plant and from leaf axils in the upper plant. The fruit is a rounded capsule.

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Water Speedwell is occasional in NE Illinois, uncommon in central Illinois, and rare or absent in the southern section of the state (see Distribution Map). This species also occurs in Eurasia; some local populations may consist of introduced Eurasian plants. Habitats consist of various wetlands, including springs and seeps, muddy borders of ponds, temporary pools of water, and ditches.
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Range Description

V. anagallis-aquatica is a subcosmopolitan species that occurs from northern Africa, Europe east to West and Central Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), Siberia, China, Korea, Macaronesia and boreal America. It is also now widely established in the United States.
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile Valley North of Nubia, Nubia, Libyan Desert Oases, Nubian Desert Oases, Gulf of Aqaba Coast, North Red Sea Coast, South Red Sea Coast.

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Global Distribution

Egypt.

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Distribution in Egypt

Nile region, oases and Sinai (St.Katherine).

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Global Distribution

Europe, Africa, Asia, temperate America.

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Anhui, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan [Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; Europe, naturalized in North America].
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Temperate Europe, Africa, W. & C. Asia, Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), Siberia, China, Korea.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Elevation Range

2800-4700 m
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Description

Perennials or rarely annuals, usually glabrous, rarely sparsely glandular hairy on inflorescence axes, pedicels, calyces, and capsules. Rhizomes inclined. Stems erect or procumbent at base, branched or not, 10-100 cm tall, succulent. Leaves sessile, amplexicaul upward; leaf blade elliptic to ovate, sometime ovate-oblong, rarely lanceolate, 2-10 X 1-3.5 cm, margin entire or sparsely serrate. Racemes axillary, many flowered, longer than leaves, often less than 1 cm wide. Pedicel 4-10 mm in fruit, as long as or longer than bract, ascending, at acute angle with inflorescence axis, curved upward in fruit and thus capsule close to inflorescence axis. Calyx 4-lobed; lobes ovate-lanceolate, ca. 3 mm, equal in size, erect or patent, not appressed to capsule in fruit, apex acute. Corolla pale blue, pale purple, or white, rotate, 4-5 mm in diam.; tube short; lobes broadly ovate, slightly unequal in width. Stamens shorter than corolla. Capsule subglobose, as long as wide, slightly compressed, as long as calyx, apex rounded and slightly notched. Style 1.5-2 mm. Seeds numerous, slightly flattened, convex on both sides. Fl. Apr-Sep. 2n = 36.
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Size

Height: 30-60 cm

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Type Information

Isotype for Veronica glandifera Pennell
Catalog Number: US 984256
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): N. L. Britton & J. K. Small
Year Collected: 1893
Locality: Suffolk., Nansemond, Virginia, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Pennell, F. W. 1919. Torreya. 19: 170.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Water Speedwell is occasional in NE Illinois, uncommon in central Illinois, and rare or absent in the southern section of the state (see Distribution Map). This species also occurs in Eurasia; some local populations may consist of introduced Eurasian plants. Habitats consist of various wetlands, including springs and seeps, muddy borders of ponds, temporary pools of water, and ditches.
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This perennial plant (Hemicryptophyte) is found in most wetland habitat types, including marshy grassland, ditches, rivers, streams and rice fields, and in other wet places, frequently in shallow water, but largely above surface. Flowering starts at the end of spring and lasts until the beginning of summer.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Moist ground, canal banks.

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Irrigation canals.

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By water or in swamps; below 4000 m.
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Associations

Faunal Associations

Information is limited. Small bees and flower flies suck nectar from the flowers. The caterpillars of the butterfly Junonia coenia (Buckeye) occasionally feed on the foliage. The foliage is not known to be toxic to either mammalian herbivores or geese.
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Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Gymnetron villosulum feeds on Veronica anagallis-aquatica

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Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Gymnetron villosulum feeds on Veronica catenata

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / gall
Sorosphaera veronicae causes gall of live stem (near ground) of Veronica catenata
Remarks: season: 2-6

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Perennial

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Perennial.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Veronica anagallis-aquatica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Veronica anagallis-aquatica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NU - Unrankable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Gupta, A.K. & Lansdown, R.V.

Reviewer/s
García, N. & Tognelli, M.

Contributor/s
Dahanukar, N., Bhat, G.K., Rao, M.L.V., Flanagan, D., Rhazi, L., Rhazi, M. & Grillas, P.

Justification
This species is assessed as Least Concern because it is widespread and does not face any major threats.
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Status in Egypt

Endemic.

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Population

Population
There is no information available on population trends in this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no known significant past, ongoing or future threats to this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no conservation measures in place and none needed.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full to partial sun, wet to consistently moist conditions, and soil that is muddy or sandy-gravelly. Shallow running water and occasional submersion from flooding is tolerated. Depending on stage of development and growing conditions, the size of individual plants is rather variable.
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Wikipedia

Veronica anagallis-aquatica

Veronica anagallis-aquatica is a species of flowering plant in the plantain family known by the common names water speedwell, blue speedwell, and brook pimpernel. Its true native range is not clear,[1] but the plant is present on most continents, and in most places it is probably naturalized. It occurs in many types of moist and wet habitat, and it is semi-aquatic, often growing in shallow water along streambanks, in ponds, and in other wetland environments. It is a rhizomatous perennial herb with stems growing 10 centimeters to about a meter in maximum length. It may be decumbent, the stem spreading along the ground and rooting where it touches moist substrate, or erect in form. The oppositely arranged leaves are green, smooth-edged or toothed, and sometimes clasping the stem where the leaf pairs meet at the bases. The inflorescence is a raceme of many flowers arising from the leaf axils. Each flower is borne on a short, curving pedicel. The flower corolla is up to a centimeter wide with four lobes, the upper lobe being widest. It is blue, lavender, or violet with purple lines near the base of each lobe. At the center are two small protruding stamens.

References[edit]

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