Overview

Brief Summary

The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) has a wide host range but is primarily a pest of its preferred host, maize. It also feeds on Sorghum, cotton, potato and capsicum crops. Ostrinia nubilalis is one of the most widely studied crop pests in the world, and has an extensive literature associated with it. Native to Europe, it was first discovered in North America in Massachusetts 1917, and has since spread into Canada and across the US as far as the Rocky Mountains. It also occurs in North Africa. A sister species, Ostrinia furnacalis (the Asian corn borer) attacks maize in China and other parts of Asia and is easily confused with O. nubilalis. Ostrinia nubilalis has a complex population structure, with three recognized subspecies. Within these subspecies there are several known strains which produce different pheromones, and ecotypes that differ in number of generations produced annually, ranging from 1-6 generations/year.

Caterpillars are about 1.5mm long at first instar and reach a final length of 2.5mm. They are pink or brown and burrow into corn ears and stalks, damaging kernel production and causing stalks to collapse. Caterpillars generally remain concealed inside the plant, so are difficult to initially detect and access. Fully grown larva overwinter inside tunnels in corn stalks, or in wild plants.

Although chemical pesticides are applied to control O. nubilalis on capsicum and potatoes, chemical control is considered less effective for this pest on maize, because of the expense, the effect of the pesticides on beneficial species that help with control, and the difficulty of accessing the larvae inside the plant. Alternative control methods include release of commercially available parasitic Trichogramma wasps. The bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Bt) can be successfully applied to target first stage larvae, and hybrid maize strains have been engineered to produce Bt toxins. Bt-corn however, has critics that worry about the effect of Bt on non-target species and also on producing Bt-tolerant strains of O. nubilalis. Maize hybrids created for tolerance to boring damage are also available and have helped minimize losses. Pheromonal control (using synthesized female sex pheromones to attract and trap males) proves difficult because the different moth strains are sensitive to different combinations of pheromone chemicals, but pheromone traps can be helpful in monitoring populations and timing of stages in the field.

(CABI, 2011; Capinera 2000)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Supplier: Dana Campbell

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / miner
caterpillar of Ostrinia nubilalis mines live stem of Artemisia vulgaris
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / miner
caterpillar of Ostrinia nubilalis mines live stem of Zea mays
Other: minor host/prey

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ostrinia nubilalis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 64 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CGGAAATGACTATATTCAACCAATCATAAAGATATTGGAACTTTATATTTTATTTTTGGAATTTGAAGAGGAATAGTAGGAACTTCTCTA---AGTTTATTAATTCGAGCTGAATTAGGTAATCCTGGATCATTAATTGGAGAT---GATCAAATTTATAATACAATTGTAACAGCTCATGCATTTATTATAATTTTTTTTATAGTAATACCTATTATAATTGGTGGATTTGGAAATTGATTAGTACCTCTAATA---TTAGGAGCTCCTGATATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAATAATATAAGATTTTGATTATTACCCCCATCATTAACCCTTTTAATTTCAAGAAGAATCGTTGAAAATGGAGCAGGAACTGGTTGAACTGTTTACCCCCCACTTTCATCTAATATTGCTCATGGAGGTAGATCTGTAGACCTA---GCTATTTTTTCATTACATTTAGCTGGTATTTCTTCAATTTTAGGAGCAATTAACTTCATTACAACAATTATTAACATACGAATTAACGGAATATCTTTTGATCAAATACCATTATTTGTATGATCTGTAGGAATTACAGCATTATTATTATTATTATCACTTCCTGTTTTAGCTGGA---GCCGTCACTATATTACCAACAGATCGAAATTTAAATACATCATTTTTTGATCCTGCTGGAGGGGGAGATCCTATTTTATATCAACATTTATTTTGATTTTTTGGACATCCAGAAGTCTATATTTTAATTTTACCAGGATTTGGTATAATTTCACATATTATTTCACAAGAAAGAGGAAAAAAA---GAAACTTTTGGATCTTTAGGAATAATTTATGCTATAATAGCAATTGGTTTATTAGGATTTGTAGTATGAGCTCATCATATATTTACAGTAGGAATAGACATCGATACACGAGCTTACTTTACCTCAGCAACAATAATTATTGCTGTTCCAACAGGAATTAAAATTTTTAGTTGATTA---GCAACC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ostrinia nubilalis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 59
Specimens with Barcodes: 163
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

European corn borer

The European corn worm or European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), also known as the European high-flyer, is a pest of grain, particularly maize. The insect is native to Europe, originally infesting varieties of millet, including broom corn. The European corn borer was first reported in North America in 1917 in Massachusetts, but was probably introduced from Europe several years earlier. Since its initial discovery in the Americas, the insect has spread into Canada and westward across the United States to the Rocky Mountains.

Caterpillar

European corn borer caterpillars damage the ears of corn, as well as the stalks, by chewing tunnels, which cause the plants to fall over. Biological control agents of corn borers include the hymenopteran parasitoid Trichogramma spp., the fungus Beauveria bassiana and the protozoa Nosema pyrausta.

Bt corn, a variety of genetically modified maize, has had its genome modified to include a gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki. As a result, the corn variety produces a toxin which affects the corn borer.[2]

Immature maize shoots accumulate a powerful antibiotic substance, DIMBOA that serves as a natural defense against a wide range of pests and is also responsible for the relative resistance of immature maize to the European corn borer.

Description[edit]

The corn borer moth is about one inch long with a one inch wingspan. The female moth is light yellowish-brown with dark, irregular, wavy bands across the wings. The male is slightly smaller and darker in coloration. The tip of its abdomen protrudes beyond its closed wings. The fully-grown larva is three-quarters to one inch in length. This borer is usually flesh-colored, but may range from light gray to faint pink, with conspicuous small, round, brown spots on each segment.

Female corn borer moths lay clusters of eggs on corn leaves, usually on the undersides. The egg masses, or clusters, are laid in an overlapping configuration and are whitish-yellow in color. As the larvae develop inside their eggs, the eggs become more and more transparent and the immature caterpillar black heads are eventually visible. The caterpillars hatch by chewing their way out of the eggs.

See also[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Ostrinia nubilalis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved July 6, 2007. 
  2. ^ University of Kentucky Extension Service Bt Corn - What it is and how it works
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!