Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Reproduction takes place in spring and summer. The species has planktonic larvae. P. minuta is considered to be an opportunistic species that prefers to colonize newly available habitats, thereby taking advantage of a relatively fast growth.

All members of the family Sigalionidae, including this species, are active, free-living predators taking a variety of small invertebrates (Hartmann-Schröder, 1971; Wolff, 1973; Curtis, 1977; Fauchald & Jumars, 1979; Bosselmann, 1991).

  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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Distribution

In the 1976-1986 period Pholoe minuta was found across the entire Belgian part of the North Sea with a low frequency of occurrence. In the 1994-2001 period this wide distribution was limited to especially the western near-coastal zone, which was characterised by a relatively high frequency of occurrence. The density of P. minuta during both periods was relatively low (maximum 100 ind./m2).
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
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The distribution of P. minuta in the area comprises the brackish waters of the Delta area and the Wadden Sea, the coastal zone and the Oyster Ground, where the species is quite abundant. lt is absent from the clean sandy substrates in a large part of the Southern Bight.
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Arctic; Iceland, Norway to France; Labrador to Long Island Sound, Bering Sea to Central California, n. Japan Sea
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

A small bristle worm, usually not larger than 10 mm. The body is flat, elongated and covered with soft scales (elytra) on the dorsal side. The head has four small eyes and one median antenna. Its colour ranges from colourless, flesh colour, greenish to black; the elytra are brownish speckled.
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
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Morphology

A small species, usually not more than 1 cm long. The body is flat, oblong and on the dorsal side covered with soft scales (elytra). In contrast to Harmothoe species the elytra leave the mid-dorsal part of the body free. The head bears four small eyes and one median antenna. The 40-60 elytra show concentric rings. The worm is black and pale pink, the elytra speckled with rusty brown (Hartmann-Schröder, 1971; Hayward & Ryland, 1990).
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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Ecology

Habitat

Pholoe minuta is found in sediments with a median grain size ranging from 100 to 500 µm, but displays a slight preference for fine-grained sediments (100 to 250 µm). However, the relative occurrence of the species remains low at all times (< 20%). With regard to the mud content the P. minuta displays a clear preference for sediments with a mud content up to 50%.
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
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P. minuta prefers to live in very fine sand with more than 10% mud. It is also recorded from under stones, among old shells, in empty tubes of Sabellaria spinulosa and in black anoxic mud (Hartmann-Schröder, 1971; Hayward & Ryland, 1990).
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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intertidal, bathyal, infralittoral and circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Depth range based on 2100 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 584 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 2718
  Temperature range (°C): -1.617 - 27.668
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.316 - 29.685
  Salinity (PPS): 25.879 - 38.201
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.900 - 8.402
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.038 - 2.182
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 51.234

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 2718

Temperature range (°C): -1.617 - 27.668

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.316 - 29.685

Salinity (PPS): 25.879 - 38.201

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.900 - 8.402

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.038 - 2.182

Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 51.234
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pholoe minuta

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 31 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNCCTGATCTGGCTTATTAGGCACATCTATAAGGATGCTTATTCGTGCTGAATTAGGACAACCCGGGTCTTTATTAGGGAGAGACCAACTCTACAATACAATTGTAACAGCTCATGCTTTCCTAATAATCTTCTTCTTAGTAATACCTATTCTTGTAGGAGGATTCGGTAATTGACTTATCCCTCTTATGCTTGGCGCTCCTGATATAGCGTTCCCTCGATTAAATAATATAAGATTCTGGTTATTACCACCATCATTAATCCTTTTATTAAGATCAAGTGCGGTTGAAAAGGGGGTGGGCACTGGGTGAACAGTGTACCCCCCACTAGCAGCAAATATTGCACATGCTGGGCCGTCAGTAGACCTAGCCATTTTTTCTCTTCATATTGCAGGAGTTTCATCAATTTTAGGCGCATTAAACTTTATCACCACAGTCCTTAATATACGTTATAAAGGGCTACGATTAGAGCGAGTCCCTTTATTTGTATGAGCTGCAAAAGTAACTGCTATCCTGTTACTTCTAAGACTCCCAGTATTAGCTGGCGCAATTACTATACTACTAACAGATCGAAACTTAAACACTGCTTTCTTTGACCCTGCGGGTGGTGGGGACCCAATCCTCTACCAACACCTATTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pholoe minuta

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 34
Specimens with Barcodes: 37
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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