Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Sexually ripe specimens have been observed in April and May. Most probably the larvae have a planktonic development. E. longissima lives in burrows. When conditions become unfavourable it will rapidly and repeatedly move and set up a new tube at other locations. E. longissima is mainly a non-selective deposit feeder, feeding on algae and dead animals. The species itself is eaten by flatfish (Hartmann-Schröder, 1971; Wolff, 1973; Fauchald & Jumars, 1979).
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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Comprehensive Description

Description

Prostomium with entire anterior margin. Longest tentacular cirri extend back to chaetiger 2–3. Maxillary ring of pharynx without papillae. Maxillary ring divided into discrete Areas. Maxillary ring of pharynx without paragnaths. Oral ring papillae absent. Oral ring paragnaths present. Area V and VI present as distinct groups. Area V conical paragnaths absent; VI present; arranged in a roughly circular group; cones present; 2–7 conical paragnaths; smooth bars absent; pectinate rows absent; VII-VIII absent. Paragnaths small orange-brown points. Transverse dorsal lamellae absent. Dorsal notopodial ligule not markedly elongate on posterior chaetigers. Not markedly broader on posterior chaetigers. Dorsal notopodial ligule not markedly reduced on posterior chaetigers. Prechaetal notopodial lobe absent. Dorsal cirrus not terminally attached to dorsal notopodial ligule on posterior chaetigers. Dorsal cirrus length about 1 times ventral notopodial ligule at chaetiger 10-20. Neuropodial postchaetal lobe absent. Ventral neuropodial ligule on posterior chaetigers similar to length of acicular neuropodial ligule. Ventral cirri single. Notopodial homogomph spinigers present; sesquigomph spinigers absent. Notopodial homogomph falcigers present; first present at chaetiger 45–52. Notopodial homogomph falcigers articulated throughout. Notopodial homogomph falcigers multidentate, with 2 or more small lateral teeth, first and subsequent lateral teeth much smaller than terminal tooth. Neuropodial dorsal fascicle fused falcigers absent.

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Distribution

With only eight observations and a maximum density of 16 ind./m2 Eunereis longissima was a rare phenomenon in the entire near-coastal zone in the 1976-1986 period. In the 1994-2001 period the number of observations increased and densities up to 100 ind./m2 were noted. The species still mainly occurred near the coast, but clearly avoided the eastern coastal zone.
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
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N. longissima occurs from the subtidal zone of the Wadden Sea and the Delta area down to a depth of 50 m in the Oyster Ground, where it is quite abundant. In the offshore part of the Southern Bight N. longissima is almost absent.
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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Northern Europe.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Unless stated otherwise in the below description, the following character states are implicit for all Nereididae species: Maxillary ring of pharynx without papillae. Maxillary ring divided into discrete Areas. Maxillary ring of pharynx with paragnaths; paragnaths arranged in discrete areas; Areas II, III and IV paragnaths not in regular comb-like rows (but may be arranged in irregular rows). Area I minute rod-like paragnaths in a compact cluster absent; II minute rod-like paragnaths in a compact cluster absent; pectinate paragnaths absent; minute rod-like paragnaths in a compact cluster absent; pectinate paragnaths absent; minute rod-like paragnaths in a compact cluster absent; smooth bar-like paragnaths absent; pectinate paragnaths absent. Oral ring papillae absent. Ring of oral ring paragnaths present as irregular rows, not crown-shaped. Smooth bars absent; pectinate rows absent; pectinate paragnaths absent; arranged in one or more irregular lines forming a continuous band; Area VII-VIII paragnaths similar in size, or irregular mix of large and small paragnaths in a single band. Transverse dorsal lamellae absent. Dorsal notopodial ligule not markedly elongate on posterior chaetigers. Not markedly broader on posterior chaetigers. Ventral cirri single.

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Diagnostic Description

Description

The bristle worm Eunereis longissima can reach a length of up to 50 cm, although only smaller specimens with a maximum length of 20cm have been found on the Belgian part of the North Sea. The striking head structures with tentacles, palps, antennae and four eyes are characteristic. Living specimens have a red to iridescent dark brown colour.
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
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Morphology

A species with a long, rather flattened body of up to 150 mm in length, with over 200 segments. The head is conical, truncate, with two frontal antennae, two biarticulate palps and four relatively small eyes. The first segments bears four pairs of cirri. Like all nereids, the species has an eversible proboscis and two terminal jaws. The small number of teeth on the proboscis are characteristic for this species. The body segments are rather uniform, with prominent, powerful parapodia bearing distinct lamellae. lt is blue-grey, reddish or pinkish in colour (Hartmann-Schröder, 1971; Hayward & Ryland, 1990).
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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Maxillary ring of pharynx Without paragnaths
Oral ring paragnaths Present
Area VII-VIII Absent
Dorsal notopodial ligule Not markedly reduced on posterior chaetigers

Maxillary ring of pharynx without paragnaths; Oral ring paragnaths present; Area paragnaths VII-VIII absent. Dorsal notopodial ligule not markedly reduced on posterior chaetigers.

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Ecology

Habitat

Eunereis longissima is typically found in sediments with a median grain size of 100 to 250 µm. The species has a broad mud content tolerance but tends to prefer (relative occurrence: > 50%) sediments with a mud content of 10-20%.
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
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Its density distribution suggests a preference for substrates with an admixture of mud.
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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Depth range based on 863 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 278 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -0.4 - 1351
  Temperature range (°C): -0.961 - 13.512
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.459 - 15.301
  Salinity (PPS): 18.622 - 38.505
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.301 - 6.915
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.237 - 1.178
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.052 - 28.168

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -0.4 - 1351

Temperature range (°C): -0.961 - 13.512

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.459 - 15.301

Salinity (PPS): 18.622 - 38.505

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.301 - 6.915

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.237 - 1.178

Silicate (umol/l): 2.052 - 28.168
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eunereis longissima

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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