Overview

Comprehensive Description

Brief

"Scales 21:21:15 rows . Ventrals: males 145-175, females 164-177. Anal Entire. Subcaudals; males 55-71, females 57-62; paired."
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Distribution

Range Description

Trimeresurus gramineus is endemic to India, where it is known from the peninsular region; it is recorded in the Western Ghats from Dangs of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, and also in the Eastern Ghats including Shevaroy, Javadi, Seshachalam and Nallamala Hills (Whitaker and Captain 2004, Srinivasulu et al. 2006, Srinivasulu and Das 2008). This species has also been reported from Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary, Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh (Srinivasulu 2003) and from Amravathi district, Maharashtra (Nande and Deshmukh 2007). It has been recorded from Achanakmar Tiger Reserve, Chattisgarh. It has been recorded from Orissa as the northernmost record. Historically, this species has also been reported from Pachmarhi, Madhya Pradesh (D'Abreu 1928). It has been recorded from sea level to 1,400 m asl.
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Endemic Distribution

Endemic to India. Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats
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Continent: Asia
Distribution: S India (West Bengal, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra (Tung fort, Ulhas valley, Valvan, Harishchandragad fort) [A. Captain, pers. Comm.])  Pakistan, Nepal, S China, Taiwan, Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands, Philippine Islands (fide MANTHEY 1983).  
Type locality: Vizagapatam, India (based on RUSSELL 1796)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Trimeresurus gramineus inhabits hilly forested tracts of Western and Eastern Ghats and also has been observed from dense forested patches in central India. It has been recorded from dry scrub forest, secondary forest and mangroves. It is an arboreal snake occasionally found on the ground, following monsoons it can be found crossing the road. It has been noted to feed on small rodents, birds, frogs, geckos and smaller snakes (Whitaker and Captain 2004).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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General Habitat

Hill Forests
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 8.4 years (captivity)
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Srinivasulu, C., Srinivasulu, B., Deepak, V., Achyuthan, N.S., Das, A. & Kulkarni, N.U.

Reviewer/s
Penner, J., Bowles, P., Vyas, R., Thakur, S. & Molur, S.

Contributor/s
Papenfuss, T., Khan, M.S., De Silva, R., Milligan, H.T., Wearn, O.R., Wren, S., Zamin, T., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Lewis, S., Lintott, P. & Powney, G.

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large overall population, and because it is unlikely to be declining.

History
  • 2010
    Data Deficient
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Population

Population
Its reported to be common in sites from where it has been reported.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
There appear to be no significant threats to this species. It is threatened in some parts of its range by habitat loss through mining, and degradation resulting from tourism.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed on Schedule IV of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. It occurs in many protected areas. Further research into its taxonomy, range and population size, threats, habitat status, biology and ecology is needed.
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Wikipedia

Trimeresurus gramineus

Common names: bamboo viper,[3][4] Indian tree viper,[5] more.

Trimeresurus gramineus is a venomous pit viper species found only in southern India. No subspecies are currently recognized.[6] It is the type species for the genus Trimeresurus.[1]

Description[edit]

T. gramineus, Katraj Snake Park, Pune.

Rostral scale as deep as broad or broader than deep; upper head-scales small, smooth, imbricate; supraocular scale narrow, rarely broken up; internasals in contact or separated by one or two scales; 8 to 13 scales on a line between the supraoculars; usually one or two, rarely three, series of scales between the suboculars and the labials; 9 to 12 upper labials, second usually forming the anterior border of the loreal pit, third largest; temporal scales smooth.

Dorsal scales more or less distinctly keeled, in 21 (rarely 19 or 23) rows. Ventrals 145-175; anal scale entire; subcaudals in two rows 53-76.

Upper parts usually bright green, rarely yellowish, greyish, or purplish brown, with or without black, brown, or reddish spots; usually a light, white, yellow, or red streak along the outer row of scales; end of tail frequently yellow or red; lower parts green, yellow, or whitish.[7]

Grows to a total length of 2.5 feet (0.76 m); tail 5.5 inches (14 cm).[7]

Bamboo Pit Viper, Raajmachi, Lonavala.

Common names[edit]

Bamboo pit viper,[3][4] Indian tree viper,[5] bamboo snake, Indian green tree viper, green tree viper,[8] bamboo viper,[9] bamboo pitviper,[10] boodro pam, grass-green snake,[11] green pit viper.[12]

Geographic range[edit]

The range of this species has been restricted to southern India. It is also rarely seen near Harishchandragad and some other mountain ranges of Western Ghats aka Sahyadris in Maharashtra.

The type locality is "Vizagapatam, India", which is based on Russell (1796).[1]

Habitat[edit]

It is found in bamboo groves and forests, usually near streams.[12]

Behavior[edit]

T. gramineus is arboreal and nocturnal. When threatened, it is aggressive and does not hesitate to bite.[12]

Diet[edit]

It feeds on lizards and birds.[12]

Reproduction[edit]

T. gramineus is oviparous. Adult females lay eggs in clutches of 6 to 20. The hatchlings resemble the adults, with the addition of dark dorsal crossbars, and are about 12 centimetres (4.7 in) in total length.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  2. ^ The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.
  3. ^ a b Khaire, N. 2006. A Guide to the Snakes of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. Indian Herpetological Society. Pune, India. (Photographic guide with 61 species.)
  4. ^ a b Smith MA. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-region. Reptilia and Amphibia, Vol. III. – Serpentes. Secretary of State for India. (Taylor & Francis, Printers). London. xii + 583 pp., 166 figures. (Trimeresurus gramineus, pp. 515-517, Fig. 164.)
  5. ^ a b Mehrtens JM. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.
  6. ^ "Trimeresurus gramineus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 27 September 2006. 
  7. ^ a b Boulenger GA. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Secretary of State for India in Council. (Taylor and Francis, Printers.) London. xviii + 541 pp. (Trimeresurus, p. 425 & Trimeresurus gramineus, pp. 429-430.)
  8. ^ U.S. Navy. 1991. Poisonous Snakes of the World. US Govt. New York: Dover Publications Inc. 203 pp. ISBN 0-486-26629-X.
  9. ^ Parker HW, Grandison AGC. 1977. Snakes -- a natural history. Second Edition. British Museum (Natural History) and Cornell University Press. 108 pp. 16 plates. LCCCN 76-54625. ISBN 0-8014-1095-9 (cloth), ISBN 0-8014-9164-9 (paper).
  10. ^ Gumprecht A, Tillack F, Orlov NL, Captain A, Ryabov S. 2004. Asian Pitvipers. GeitjeBooks Berlin. 1st Edition. 368 pp. ISBN 3-937975-00-4.
  11. ^ Shaw. 1802. p. 420.
  12. ^ a b c d e Das, Indraneil. 2002. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of India. Ralph Curtis Books. Sanibel Island, Florida. 144 pp. ISBN 0-88359-056-5. (Trimeresurus gramineus, p. 65.)

Further reading[edit]

  • Cantor, T.E. 1839. Spicilegium serpentium indicorum [parts 1 and 2]. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 7: 31-34, 49-55.
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian Pit Vipers. Geitje Books. Berlin. 368 pp.
  • Russell, P. 1796. An Account of Indian Serpents, Collected on the Coast of Coromandel; Containing Descriptions and Drawings of Each Species, Together with Experiments and Remarks on Their Several Poisons. George Nicol. London. viii + 91 pp. + Plates I.- XLVI.
  • Shaw, G. 1802. General Zoology, or Systematic Natural History: Vol. III., Part II. G. Kearsley. (Thomas Davison, Printer). London. iv + pp. 313–615 + Plates 87-140. ("Coluber Gramineus", pp. 420–421.).
  • Stejneger, L. 1927. The green pit viper, Trimeresurus gramineus, in China. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 72 (19): 1-10.
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