The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • A. L. Melander, “Diptera, Fam. Empididae”, Genera Insectorum, vol. 185, pp. 1-434, 1928.
  • Empididae
  • G. C. Steyskal and L. V. Knutson, “Chapter 47. Empididae”, in Manual of Nearctic Diptera, vol. 1, J. F. McAlpine, B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth, and D. M. Wood Ottawa: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 1981, pp. 607-624.
  • Wyatt, N. (2015). Empididae. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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