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SummaryMauremys nigricans, the Red-necked Pond Turtle (Family Geoemydidae), is known from montane streams in the Pearl River drainage of southern China, and may also occur in the Jinlong Jiang River drainage of southeastern China and the Red River drainage of Vietnam. All data on the natural history of M. nigricans are either highly dated or derived from captive specimens. The taxonomic status of M. nigricans was unclear for many years and, although now resolved at the species level, morphological variation within the species has not been investigated; hence, no subspecies are recognized. Mauremys nigricans is in urgent need of additional conservation measures because of its restricted range and escalating demand for the species by collectors. Management of captive stocks for future reintroductions may be crucial, as no surviving wild populations of M. nigricans are currently known, despite multiple recent field surveys for this species.