Medium-sized lizard, largest with a SVL of 284 mm; average tail/SVL = 1.3. Similar to L. s. brachydactyla; differs as follows: Mid-back longitudinal band of enlarged scales is more heterogeneous, composed of large scales surrounded by much smaller ones; spiny rosettes on flanks less well developed; tail proportionately shorter; dorsal coloration pale olive-gray, with whitish dorsal spots, less contrasting even in breeding males; tail bars less conspicuous.
Distribution in Egypt
Northeast Sinai, and the environs of Alexandria, west to Burg El Arab. Specimens from Ras El Hekma, collected in 1951 appears to be from an isolated population; none were found at that locality during several visits in the 1990s. The species was introduced to Giza and the Delta Barrages (north of Cairo) in the late 1800s and early 1900s (Flower 1933), and apparently also at Kom Oshim. The Giza population has become extinct; the status of the other two introduced populations is not clear, but they are likely to have disappeared as well. In North Sinai it is distributed in a narrow band from El Arish to Rafah, extending inland some 15 km along Wadi El Arish.
It is likely that the only populations of L. s. stellio naturally occurring in Egypt are those of northeast Sinai. The Alexandria population was probably introduced (from Greece) in ancient times, when maritime- transport across the Mediterranean was prevalent. The isolated nature of the Alexandria population and its limited disjunct distribution indicate that it is unlikely that the species colonized this territory by natural means. The taxon apparently has excellent colonization capacity. A similar (but reversed) scenario is proposed for an isolated population of Chamaeleo africanus found recently in Greece (Bohme et al. 1998).
Southeast Europe, Asia Minor, the Levant, and northeast Egypt.
Distribution: Greece (incl. Lesbos, Paros, Antiparos, Despotiko, Kalymnos, Paxos, Corfu = Corfou, Chios, Samos, Agathonisi, Delos, Mikro Rhematiaris, Mykonos, Naxos, Rhineia, Tinos, Chalki, Kastelorizo, Kos, Leros, Nisyros, Patmos, Rhodos, Symi, Telendos, Tilos, Fourni, Ikaria, Thimena, Syrni, C Macedonia), Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Cyprus, Jordan, Israel brachydactyla: N Saudi Arabia, S Israel, Sinai, Jordan.
Type locality: Jebel Lussan at the border between Israel and Sinai, south-south-west of Beer-Sheba. cypriaca: Cyprus daani: Saloniki, islands in the Aegian Sea (Antiparos, Despotiko, Naxos, Paros, Samos, Thimena, Syrni, Chalki, Kalymnos, Kastelorizo, Kos, Leros, Nisyros, Rhodos, Symi, Telendos, Tilos, Lesbos, Chios, Fourni, Ikaria); Turkey (W and SW Turkey), Macedonia. picea: SW Syria, S Lebanon, N Israel, NW Jordan.
Type locality: Black Lava Desert of Transjordania. salehi: Israel (Sinai) stellio: Cyclades (Mikro Rhematiaris, Rhineia, Mykonos Islands, Delos, Paros, Antiparos, Naxos), Sporades, Rhodos, Ionian Islands (Korfu); Turkey (central, south and southeast Turkey); Jordan.
Type locality: Delos, Aegypto, Africa. Restricted to Delos Island, Greece by MERTENS & MÜLLER 1928. Restricted to Nissí Dílos (= Delos island), Greece, by neotype designation. vulgaris: N Egypt. Terra typica restricta: Unter-Ägypten (MERTENS & WERMUTH 1960).
Habitat and Ecology
Well-vegetated rocky areas.It is found in two different situations: in the environs of Alexandria it inhabits coastal ridges and cliffs near the Mediterranean, as well as some ruins; in North Sinai it has adapted to cultivation and orchards with large trees, where it climbs on buildings (even inhabited ones) and trees.
Life History and Behavior
When disturbed it runs into rock crevices or climb up high on trees.
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Laudakia stellio
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
Status in Egypt
Heavily collected by commercial animal dealers. The decline and disappearance of some local populations is probably due to commercial collection. Loss of introduced populations is of little ecological consequence
Stellagama is a monotypic genus of agamid lizards containing the single species Stellagama stellio. Common names for the species include stellion, hardim, hardun, star lizard, painted dragon, starred agama, sling-tailed agama and roughtail rock agama. It is found in Greece, Southwest Asia, and Northeast Africa.
Total length is up to 35 centimetres (14 in) or slightly longer. Like many agamids, stellions can change color to express their moods. They bask on stone walls, rocks, and trees. They are usually found in rocky habitats, and are quite shy, being very ready to dive into cracks to hide from potential predators.
The name "stellion" comes from Latin stellio, stēlio (stelliōn-, stēliōn-), which referred to any spotted lizard, from stella, star.
- Baig, K. J., et al. (2012). A morphology-based taxonomic revision of Laudakia Gray, 1845 (Squamata: Agamidae). Vertebrate Zoology 62(2) 213-60.
- Amr, Z. S. S., et al. 2012. Stellagma stellio. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.