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SummaryThe ringed map turtle, Graptemys oculifera (Family Emydidae), is a medium-sized aquatic turtle that inhabits the Pearl River watershed of Mississippi and Louisiana. This species prefers larger rivers with current and abundant basking structure in the form of deadwood. Males (carapace length to 109 mm) are much smaller than females (to 215 mm) and mature between 2 and 4 yrs of age, with females maturing between 10 and 16 yrs. Nesting occurs primarily on sandbars from May to July, average clutch size is 3.66 eggs, clutch size ranges from 1 to 10, and annual clutch frequency is 1.10. Nest predation is relatively high, with ca. 86% destroyed by vertebrate predators, usually raccoons, fish crows, or armadillos. The diet is composed primarily of aquatic insects. Densities range from 90 to over 340 turtles per river km. Primary threats appear to be habitat loss, modification, and sedimentation. The current IUCN status as Endangered should be retained primarily because of the restricted distribution of this species and the continuing loss of habitat within that restricted range.