Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs from North Carolina south to Florida and throughout the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico, to Venezuela in the southeast (E. Petuch pers. comm. 2011).
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Geographic Range

Florida and the Gulf of Mexico

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native ); atlantic ocean (Native )

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

These cones reach 2-3 inches in length. They surface of the shell is smooth. Background color white, with numerous small orangish squares.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species lives at depths to 0-30 m in open sand bottoms or sand flats. Adults grow to approx 80 mm although will generally be less than this (Rosenberg 2009).

Systems
  • Marine
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This species of cone is at home on coral reefs or shallow ocean bottom.

Aquatic Biomes: reef ; coastal

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Depth range based on 22 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 11 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 5 - 165
  Temperature range (°C): 20.869 - 26.864
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.054 - 5.217
  Salinity (PPS): 34.973 - 36.778
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.523 - 4.984
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 0.297
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.217 - 4.006

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 5 - 165

Temperature range (°C): 20.869 - 26.864

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.054 - 5.217

Salinity (PPS): 34.973 - 36.778

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.523 - 4.984

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 0.297

Silicate (umol/l): 1.217 - 4.006
 
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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

This particular cone is a predator that feeds on anything from marine worms to sizable fish. It hunts by extending its proboscis," a muscular extension and retraction of the gut." When it touches prey, the proboscis launches a harpoon-like tooth that pierces the prey and injects deadly venom. The proboscis is then retracted, hauling the prey in. The venom is very deadly and some species of cones have reportedly caused human fatalities.

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Cones are sexual reproducing animals. When mating, the female lays a group of eggs that are all attached in a thick kind of mucus. The male is positioned near her body and fertilizes the eggs as soon as they are exit her body. The fertilized eggs remain bonded together in the thick mucus layer until they hatch. Young are not tended by their parents.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Petuch, E.

Reviewer/s
Peters, H. & Coltro, J.

Contributor/s

Justification
This is a wide-ranging species that can be found at many locations throughout the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico. There are no known threats. This species is listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
There are no recordings of population levels for this species in the literature.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no known threats to this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

These snails play a role in the food chain of the sea as predators.

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Wikipedia

Conus spurius

Conus spurius is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.[1]

Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans, therefore live ones should be handled carefully or not at all.

Contents

Distribution

Description

The maximum recorded shell length is 80 mm.[2]

Habitat

Minimum recorded depth is 0 m.[2] Maximum recorded depth is 64 m.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b Conus spurius Gmelin, 1791.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 27 March 2010.
  2. ^ a b c Welch J. J. (2010). "The "Island Rule" and Deep-Sea Gastropods: Re-Examining the Evidence". PLoS ONE 5(1): e8776. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008776.
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