Localities documented in Tropicos sources
United States (North America)
Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
|Specimen Records:||41||Public Records:||19|
|Specimens with Sequences:||33||Public Species:||5|
|Specimens with Barcodes:||33||Public BINs:||0|
|Species With Barcodes:||5|
Locations of barcode samples
Clintonia borealis (commonly Blue-bead lily or Clintonia, also Clinton's Lily, Corn Lily, Cow Tongue, Yellow Beadlily, Yellow Bluebeadlily, Snakeberry, Dogberry, Straw Lily), is a perennial forest plant found in eastern North America. It was once classified within the genus Convallaria.
Blue-bead lilies are small (5–10 in) perennial plants, usually found in homogeneous colonies. At full growth, a shoot has 2–4 clasping and curved, slightly succulent leaves with parallel venation. The flowers are arranged in small umbels at the extremity of a long stalk. They have 6 stamens and 3 identical sepals and petals (tepals). In rare cases more than one umbel is found on a shoot or shoots from a clone. The fruits are small dark blue, lurid berries. A white-berried form (f. albicarpa) also exists.
Distribution and multiplication
The plant is native to the boreal forest in eastern North America, but is also found in other coniferous or mixed forests and in cool temperate maple forests. It is not found in open spaces, and only grows in the shade.
The plant reproduces via seed or vegetatively by rhizomes. Flowering in May and June, it takes over a dozen years for a clone to establish and produce its first flower, 2 years of which are dedicated solely to germination. The rhizome starts to mold after approximatively 15 years, but a colony often covers several hundred m². Few specimens establish new colonies.
Blue-bead lily is extremely slow to spread, but established clones can usually survive many later modifications, as long as sunlight remains limited. Whereas crossed pollination is more efficient in producing seeds, self-pollination will still produce seeds, allowing the plant to propagate.
The young leaves of the plant are edible while still only a few inches tall. The fruit however, is mildly toxic, and is quite unpleasant tasting.
Culture is difficult, due to the need to avoid direct sunlight and the difficulty posed by germination. Transplanting is not recommended.
Hunters in North Quebec were said to have rubbed their traps with the roots because bears are attracted to its odor.
The genus Clintonia contains the bead lilies, which flower and then fruit into berries. Plants of this genus are distributed across North America and eastern Asia. This genus was named after De Witt Clinton, an 18th-century botanist and U.S. politician.
The genus include plants without stems, growing from underground rhizomes. They have elliptic, clasping leaves with parallel venation and flowers arranged in small umbels. The flowers parts are by 6: tepals, etamins, ovules. Their fruit is an ovoid berry.