Comprehensive DescriptionRead full entry
Type species: Loricaria punctata Regan, 1904 .
Lectotype : BMNH 1893.4.24: 18 , Brazil , Rio Negro at Manaos .
This monotypic genus is widely distributed in the Amazon basin and in the Essequibo River drainage. Limatulichthys ZBK is a sand dweller. As suggested by the hypertrophied development of lower lip in males, Limatulichthys ZBK may be a lip brooder like many representatives of the Loricariichthys ZBK group. Isbrücker & Nijssen (1976b) revised Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 ZBK , in which they assigned two species: P. laeviuscula (Valenciennes, 1840) and P. punctata (Regan, 1904) , and designated a lectotype for the latter from BMNH 1893.4.24: 18, described by Regan (1904) as Loricaria punctata . Isbrücker & Nijssen (1976b) also put Loricaria griseus Eigenmann, 1909 ZBK , Rhineloricaria petleyi Fowler, 1940 ZBK , and Loricariichthys parnahybae Fowler, 1941 ZBK into the synonymy of Pseudoloricaria punctata (Regan, 1904) . Isbrücker & Nijssen (1976b: p. 125) wrote: “Kner (1854b: 281) published a manuscript name “Loricaria punctata Natterer” in the synonymy of “Ancistrus duodecimalis?” (Valenciennes) . Since this name fails to satisfy the provisions in article 11(d) of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1964), therefore Loricaria (Pseudoloricaria) punctata Regan, 1904 ZBK is not subject to the Law of Homonymy”. According to Ferraris (2003) Loricaria punctata Regan, 1904 constitutes a primary homonymy of Loricaria punctata Kner (ex Natterer), 1854 , a representative of the genus Glyptoperichthys ZBK . However, it appears that Kner (1854) does not refer to Natterer’s manuscript for a description of Loricaria punctata , but only to a specimen (number 87) recorded in Natterer’s field notes and identified as a representative of the genus Ancistrus ZBK . Consequently, according to articles 11.5, 11.6, and 12.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature ( ICZN, 1999), the name Loricaria punctata Kner is not made available. Later, Günther (1864) refers to Kner’s work using the name Loricaria punctata as an available name in a new combination Pterygoplichthys punctatus ZBK . Acording to ICZN article 11.5.2, referring to an unavailable name does not make it available by its mere citation. Consequently, this species name is hereby new and has to be considered as Pterygoplichthys punctatus Guenther , 1864 ZBK . Steindachner (1881) used the name “ Chaetostomus punctatus sp. Gthr .” and redescribed the species without taking into account the name Loricaria punctata . Consequently, the new species described as Loricaria punctata by Regan (1904) is not a homonym of Loricaria punctata Kner (1854). Regan (1904) also confirmed the status of Pterygoplichthys punctatus Guenther , 1864 ZBK . Conversely, Isbrùcker (1980) considered that Günther (1864) validated the name Loricaria punctata Natterer, 1854 by authorship to Natterer. However, the name Loricaria punctata Natterer is not available as seen previously. Moreover, Günther (1864) published the description of Pterygoplichthys punctatus ZBK with Loricaria punctata Natterer listed as junior synonym. Considering ICZN article 11.6, the name Loricaria punctata Natterer is not available. Isbrücker et al. (2001) accepted the primary homonymy between L. punctata Natterer and L. punctata Regan , considered Limatulichthys griseus (Eigenmann, 1909) as a distinct species, and therefore established Limatulichthys petleyi (Fowler, 1940) as a substitution name for Limatulichthys punctatus (Regan, 1904) . Ferraris (2003) considered L. petleyi to be a synonym of L. griseus and also established the latter as a substitution name for L. punctata . The nomenclatural status of Limatulichthys ZBK remains unclear and this case should be submitted to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature in order to rule on the validity of Loricaria punctata Regan, 1904 .