Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

A subarctic shelled pteropod of Atlantic arctic waters
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Foot modified into a pair of large pad-shapped lobes; Body often darkly pigmented; Left coiled shell with high spire; 6 to 9 transparent, striated shell whorls; Two subspecies occur, with Limacina retroversa retroversa occuring in the North Atlantic, within which 2 forma retroversa and balea are recognized
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Distribution

Arctic seas to Cape Cod, Massachusetts
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Ecology

Habitat

upper epipelagic and glacial
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Depth range based on 909 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 763 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 3848
  Temperature range (°C): -0.746 - 18.695
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.496 - 24.188
  Salinity (PPS): 30.843 - 38.757
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.148 - 7.833
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.079 - 1.819
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.791 - 18.849

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 3848

Temperature range (°C): -0.746 - 18.695

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.496 - 24.188

Salinity (PPS): 30.843 - 38.757

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.148 - 7.833

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.079 - 1.819

Silicate (umol/l): 0.791 - 18.849
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Subpolar North Alantic, advected into Barents Sea, Icelandic and Greenlandic waters; Bipolar; Epipelagic (shallow dwelling); Often found in swarms
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Trophic Strategy

Mucus nets are produced on foot-wings to trap phytoplankton and small particles; Net is periodically eaten to acquire the food stuck to it; Animals must regularly swim upward to offset their sinking
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

protandrous hermaphrodite (males first, then females later); Spermatophores used for sperm transfer; Eggs are released in ribbons during spring and summer spring that hatch into ciliated veligers; Generation times thought to be 1 year in the arctic and perhaps 2 per year in the subarctic
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Limacina retroversa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:9Public Records:0
Specimens with Sequences:6Public Species:0
Specimens with Barcodes:6Public BINs:0
Species:1         
Species With Barcodes:1         
          
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Wikipedia

Limacina retroversa

Limacina retroversa is a species of swimming predatory sea snail in the family Limacinidae,[3] that belong to the group commonly known as sea butterflies (Thecosomata).

There is one subspecies: Limacina retroversa australis (Eydoux & Souleyet, 1840)

Contents

Distribution

This marine species has a wide distribution:

  • North Atlantic Ocean
  • Northwest Atlantic Ocean
  • European waters
  • Mediterranean Sea
  • Caribbean Sea
  • Cape Verde
  • Argentine Sea[4]

Ecology

Pteropod Clione limacina feeds only on genus Limacina: on Limacina helicina and on Limacina retroversa.[5]

References

  1. ^ Fleming J. (1823). "On a reversed species of Fusus (Fusus retroversus)". Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society, Edinburgh, 4(2): 498-500, plate 15, figure 2.
  2. ^ "Limacina retroversa". CLEMAM, accessed 3 February 2011.
  3. ^ a b Gofas, S. (2011). Limacina retroversa. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=140227 on 18 July 2012
  4. ^ Dadon J. R. & de Cidre L. L. (1992). "The reproductive cycle of the Thecosomatous pteropod Limacina retroversa in the western South Atlantic". Marine Biology 114: 439-442. doi:10.1007/BF00350035, PDF.
  5. ^ Lalli C. M. & Gilmer R. W. (1989). Pelagic Snails. The biology of holoplanktonic gastropod molluscs. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. page 188.
  • Abbott, R.T. (1974). American Seashells. 2nd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York, NY (USA). 663 pp.
  • Rosenberg, G. 1992. Encyclopedia of Seashells. Dorset: New York. 224 pp.
  • Bleakney, J.S. 1996. Sea slugs of Atlantic Canada and the Gulf of Maine. The Nova Scotia Museum Field Guide Series. Nimbus Publishing. Halifax. 216 p.
  • Turgeon, D.D., et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates of the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26
  • Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. (2001). Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 180-213
  • Rolán E., 2005. Malacological Fauna From The Cape Verde Archipelago. Part 1, Polyplacophora and Gastropoda.
  • Janssen A.W. (2012) Late Quaternary to Recent holoplanktonic Mollusca (Gastropoda) from bottom samples of the eastern Mediterranean Sea: systematics, morphology. Bollettino Malacologico 48 (suppl. 9): 1-105.

Further reading

  • Lebour M. V. (1932). "Limacina retroversa in Plymouth waters". J. mar. biol. Assoc. U.K. (ns)18(1): 123-129, 2 pls.
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