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Overview

Brief Summary

Great pond snails have lungs and need to surface regularly and take a breath. They eat just about anything they run into, even their own excrement. That sounds disgusting, but it means that they only waste 15% of what they eat. A pig wastes 6 times as much with its excrement! Pond snails are both male and female simultaneously and mate with another snail or with itself. The chains of eggs are attached to the underside of drifting leaves. After 10 days, the small snails hatch.
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Biology

This species feeds on both plant and animal matter with a rasping tongue known as a radula, which can leave distinctive feeding marks behind (7). It can even attack newts, small fishes, and water beetle larvae and may occasionally be cannibalistic, eating smaller great pond snails (3). It lays large gelatinous egg-masses on weeds and other objects in the pond (6). These egg masses measure between 5 and 6 cm in length (5), and can contain as many as 50-120 eggs (6). The size to which a specimen will grow is dependent upon the volume of water in the pond; individuals grow larger in big ponds. Young specimens are slender and have more translucent shells than mature snails (6). Great pond snails often come to the surface to take in air into a respiratory cavity. When the pond becomes covered in ice, or when the snails move to deeper water in winter, they are able to take in oxygen from the water through the skin. The wide tentacles play a key role in the intake of oxygen; the surface of the tentacles is covered in tiny hair-like structures known as 'cilia' which function to increase their surface area, thus increasing the intake of air (4).
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Description

This species is the largest pond snail in Britain (1). It has a shiny yellowish brown shell, with a tall, slender and pointed spire (2). The shell walls are delicate and fairly transparent; they have fine markings, more prominent growth lines and variable dents on the surface (2). This snail's body is yellowish grey in colour, with a large head and long, flattened tentacles (3).
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Distribution

Range Description

A widespread species distributed in Asia (central, north and south and southeast), north America, north Africa and New Zealand. This species also has a widespread European distribution, occurring in all European Mediterranean countries (Yueying Liu et al. 1979)
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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Nominal Lymnaea stagnalis extends over almost the whole of Europe and the western part of North Africa; all of Asia with the exception of the most southern regions, and probably also the extreme north-eastern region; extending from Asia Minor, Syria and Iran in the south, to Obdorsk in teh north and Kamchatka in teh east; and is widely distributed in North America, where it inhabits the region of the Great Lakes in a north-westerly direction to the Yukon River in Alaska and the western states to the north of the 37th parallel (largely absent from the east coast of North America and absent from Greenland and Iceland) (Hubendick, 1951). Burch (1989) cites distribution of Lymnaea stagnalis appressa as Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River drainage area, northwest to the Mackenzie and Yukon River drainage areas, west to the Rocky Mountains, some in the Rocky Mountains to Colorado, and in Illinois and Ohio in the Mississippi drainage. Burch (1989) cites distribution of Lymnaea stagnalis sanctaemariae as Lake Superior drainage area and adjacent parts of the Lake Huron, Wisconsin River and Winnipeg River drainage areas. Clarke (1981) lists Lymnaea stagnalis jugularis from Alberta and Saskatchewan.

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Range

This pond snail is common in England but becomes scarce in Wales and Scotland. The distribution may be affected by the introduction of this species to garden ponds (1). Elsewhere, it is found throughout Europe, northern Asia and North America (2).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits slow or still waters, such as the edge of pools, streams, reservoirs, amongst others. They like muddy sand or crushed stone bottom, and feed on diatoms, aquatic plants and the remaining tissue of other gastropods. The species can be transported by birds, in part accounting for its very wide distribution.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Habitat Type: Freshwater

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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Found in still or slow-moving waters where there is plenty of aquatic vegetation (2). As the specific part of the Latin name, stagnalis suggests, this species prefers stagnant water (6).
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Associations

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
furcocercaria of Cotylurus cornutus endoparasitises Lymnaea stagnalis
Remarks: Other: uncertain

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300

Comments: It has been documented in Alaska in the North Gulf Coast and potentially elsewhere (Baxter, 1987). In Kentucky, it has been documented in the Kentucky River drainage (Lake Arlington) (Branson and Batch, 1981). In Indiana, Pyron et al. (2008) found it at Bass Lake, Starke Co. (of 123 sites surveyed statewide) compared historically to streams of the northern part of the state and in Lake Michigan (Goodrich and van der Schalie, 1944). It occurs throughout Alberta (Lepitzki, 2001) including Colin-Cornwall Lakes Wildlands Park (Nordstrom, 2003; as subspecies jugularis).

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Global Abundance

>1,000,000 individuals

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Lymnaea stagnalis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 15 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TACCTTGTATATAATTTTTGGTGTTTGATGTGGTCTAGTTGGAACAGGTTTATCCTTACTAATTCGTTTAGAATTAGGGACATCTATAGTT---------------TTAATTGATGAGCATTTCTATAATGTTATTGTTACAGCACATGCTTTTGTTATGATTTTTTTTATAGTTATACCCATGATGATTGGGGGATTTGGGAATTGAATAGTACCTTTATTAATTGGGGCTCCAGATATAAGTTTTCCTCGAATAAATAATATAAGTTTTTGATTATTACCTCCTTCCTTTGTTCTTCTTTTATGTTCTAGCATAGTTGAAGGTGGGGTAGGTACTGGGTGAACAGTTTATCCCCCCCTAAGAGGTCCTATTGCTCATGGTGGTTCATCTGTGGATTTGGCCATTTTTTCATTACATTTAGCAGGGCTATCTAGAATTTTAGGTGCTATTAATTTTATTACAACTATTTTTAATATACGGTCACCAGGTATTACCTTAGAACGTATAAGGTTATTTGTATGATCAGTATTAGTAACAGCTTTCTTACTTTTACTTTCTTTACCTGTTTTAGCTGGGGCTATTACAATACTTTTAACTGACCGAAATTTTAATACAACTTTTTTTGATCCAGCTGGAGGTGGAGATCCTATTTTATACCAACATTTGTTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lymnaea stagnalis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 82
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Budha, P.B., Dutta, J. & Daniel, B.A.

Reviewer/s
Madhyastha, A., Dey, A., García, N. & Molur, S.

Contributor/s

Justification
Lymnaea stagnalis has a very wide global distribution with no threats and is assessed as Least Concern.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: This species has a very wide range with a global distribution and is often common when found. It is listed as secure in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Not intrinsically vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Broad. Generalist or community with all key requirements common.

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Status

Common and widespread in England, scarce in Scotland and Wales (2).
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Population

Population
No information on population status or trends has been recorded. Although there are localised declines, the species population is believed to be stable.

Population Trend
Stable
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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Global Long Term Trend: Increase of 10-25% to decline of 30%

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Threats

Major Threats
It is a widespread species with no major species-specific threats.
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Degree of Threat: Low

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Not currently threatened.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

No conservation actions are required for this species at present.

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Global Protection: Unknown whether any occurrences are appropriately protected and managed

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Conservation

No conservation action has been targeted at this species.
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Wikipedia

Lymnaea stagnalis

Lymnaea stagnalis, better known as the great pond snail, is a species of large air-breathing freshwater snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Lymnaeidae.

Distribution[edit]

The distribution of this species is Holarctic. It is widely distributed, and is common in many countries and islands including:

Shell description[edit]

For terms see gastropod shell The height of an adult shell of this species ranges from 45–60 mm. The width of an adult shell ranges from 20-30 mm. (34) mm.

The 40-50 x 22-30 mm. (median) shell has 4.5-6 weakly convex whorls.The upper whorls are pointed, the last whorl is suddenly inflated, so that its diameter is more than a continuous increase of that of the upper whorls.The umbilicus is closed.Shells are brown in colour.[7]

Nervous system[edit]

The dissected central ring ganglia of Lymnaea stagnalis. Scale bar is 1 mm.
LBuG and RBuG: left and right buccal ganglia
LCeG and RCeG: left and right cerebral ganglia
LPeG and RPeG: left and right pedal ganglia
LPIG and RPIG: left and right pleural ganglia
LPaG and RPaG: left and right parietal ganglia
VG: visceral ganglion.

Lymnaea stagnalis is widely used for the study of learning, memory and neurobiology.[8]

Lymnaea stagnalis has a relatively simple central nervous system (CNS) consisting of a total of ~20,000 neurons, many of them individually identifiable, organized in a ring of interconnected ganglia. Most neurons of the Lymnaea stagnalis central nervous system are large in size (diameter: up to ~100 μm), thus allowing electrophysiological dissection of neuronal networks that has yielded profound insights in the working mechanisms of neuronal networks controlling relatively simple behaviors such as feeding, respiration, locomotion, and reproduction. Studies using the central nervous system of Lymnaea stagnalis as a model organism have also identified novel cellular and molecular mechanisms in neuronal regeneration, synapse formation, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory formation, the neurobiology of development and aging, the modulatory role of neuropeptides, and adaptive responses to hypoxic stress.[8]

Habitat[edit]

This large snail lives only in freshwater: it prefers slowly running water, and standing water bodies.

Lymnaea stagnalis in typical mating position of this species. The top snail is performing the male role (sperm donor), its white preputium (penis-carrying organ, Pp) can be seen inserted under the shell of the sperm recipient, where the female opening is located. During insemination, sperm (from the seminal vesicles) and seminal fluids (from the prostate gland) are transferred. Since these are simultaneous hermaphrodites, sexual roles can be swapped immediately afterwards.[9]

Life cycle[edit]

Lymnaea stagnalis is a simultaneously hermaphroditic species and can mate in the male and female role, but within one copulation only one sexual role is performed at a time.[10] Lymnaea stagnalis perform more inseminations in larger groups and prefer to inseminate novel over familiar partners. Such higher motivation to copulate when a new partner is encountered is known as the Coolidge effect and has been demonstrated in hermaphrodites firstly in 2007.[10]

Parasites[edit]

Lymnaea stagnalis is an intermediate host for:

Other parasites of Lymnaea stagnalis include:

Lymnaea stagnalis has been experimentally infected with Elaphostrongylus rangiferi.[14]

References[edit]

This article incorporates CC-BY-2.0 text from references[8][10] and CC-BY-2.5 text from the reference[9]

  1. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/155475/0
  2. ^ Linnaeus C. (1758) Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edition. Vermes. Testacea: 700-781. Holmiae. (Salvius).
  3. ^ Juřičková L., Horsák M. & Beran L. (2001) "Check-list of the molluscs (Mollusca) of the Czech Republic". Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 65: 25-40.
  4. ^ Glöer P. & Meier-Brook C. (2003) Süsswassermollusken. DJN, 134 pp., page 109, ISBN 3-923376-02-2.
  5. ^ (Dutch) Lymnaea stagnalis — Anemoon
  6. ^ http://ecoinf.uran.ru/content/4catalog/61.shtml
  7. ^ Animalbase (Welter-Schultes)
  8. ^ a b c Feng Z-P., Zhang Z., Kesteren R. E. van, Straub V. A., Nierop P. van, Jin K., Nejatbakhsh N., Goldberg J. I., Spencer G. E., Yeoman M. S., Wildering W., Coorssen J. R., Croll R. P., Buck L. T., Syed N. I. & Smit A. B. (23 September 2009) "Transcriptome analysis of the central nervous system of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis". BMC Genomics 10: 451. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-451
  9. ^ a b Koene J. M., Sloot W., Montagne-Wajer K., Cummins S. F., Degnan B. M., Smith J. S., Nagle G. T. & Maat A. ter (2010). "Male Accessory Gland Protein Reduces Egg Laying in a Simultaneous Hermaphrodite". PLoS ONE 5(4): e10117. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010117.
  10. ^ a b c Koene J. M. & Maat A. T. (6 November 2007) "Coolidge effect in pond snails: male motivation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite". BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 212. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-212
  11. ^ Kudlai O. S. (2009). "The discovery of the intermediate host for the trematode Moliniella anceps (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae) in Ukraine". Vestnik zoologii 43(4): e-11–e-13. doi:10.2478/v10058-009-0014-x.
  12. ^ Leicht K. & Seppälä O. (2014). "Infection success of Echinoparyphium aconiatum (Trematoda) in its snail host under high temperature: role of host resistance". Parasites & Vectors 7:192. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-7-192.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Soldanova M., Selbach C., Sures B., Kostadinova A. & Perez-del-Olmo A. (2010). "Larval trematode communities in Radix auricularia and Lymnaea stagnalis in a reservoir system of the Ruhr River". Parasites & Vectors 2010, 3: 56. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-3-56.
  14. ^ Skorping A. (1985). "Lymnea stagnalis as experimental intermediate host for Elaphostrongylus rangiferi". Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde 71: 265-270.
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